Improving the Sustainability of Autonomous Systems
ABSTRACT The border gateway protocol (BGP) routing system is one of the key components of today's Internet infrastructure. However, the fundamentals of the BGP routing system have remained unchanged since its standardization. The only fault tolerant mechanism currently available is multihoming, which is about increasing the number of peering autonomous systems (ASes). The reliability of the BGP infrastructure is highly dependent on the statically configured links provided by multihoming, and recovery from larger failures requires cooperation among operators in both parties. Such manual process is problematic, especially during disasters, as it severely delays recovery. As a solution to the problem, this paper proposes a novel on-demand BGP peering method to offer ASes the ability to autonomously and dynamically recover from failures. We introduce a new peering model where peering is established only upon failures. These peers are discovered dynamically and peering is established without any prior configuration. Through evaluation using a prototype implementation, the proposed on-demand BGP peering method provided recovery within 3 seconds of the time of the BGP hold timer expiration. The method is designed to ensure applicability to current ASes with flexibility and adaptability to various failures, contributing toward improving the sustainability of ASes.
Conference Proceeding: A Framework for Measuring and Predicting the Impact of Routing Changes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Routing dynamics heavily influence Internet data plane performance. Existing studies only narrowly focused on a few destinations and did not consider the predictability of the impact of routing changes on performance metrics such as reachability. In this work, we propose an efficient framework to capture coarse-grained but important performance degradation as a result of BGP routing events using light-weight probing. We deployed our framework across six vantage points for 11 weeks and found that the data plane experienced serious performance degradation in the form of reachability loss and forwarding loops following a significant fraction of updates affecting many desti- nation prefixes and networks across all vantage points studied. Specifically, more than 39% of updates resulted in reachability loss, some lasting for more than 300 seconds, impacting more than 72% of probed prefixes and more than 35% of all the prefixes on the Internet. We identified that more than half of the prefixes have pre- dictable routing behavior. Based on the stationarity of the corre- lation between routing changes and the data plane performance, we developed a model to accurately predict the severity of the impact due to routing changes. Such a model is directly helpful for making informed decisions for improved routing schemes such as overlay routing and backup path selection.INFOCOM 2007. 26th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, 6-12 May 2007, Anchorage, Alaska, USA; 01/2007
Conference Proceeding: Improving BGP Convergence Through Consistency Assertions.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new mechanism for improving the convergence properties of path vector routing algorithms, such as BGP. Using a route's path information, we develop two consistency assertions for path vector routing algorithms that are used to compare similar routes and identify infeasible routes. To apply these assertions in BGP, mechanisms to signal failure/policy withdrawal, and traffic engineering are provided. Our approach was implemented and deployed in a BGP testbed and evaluated using simulation. By identifying and ignoring the infeasible routes, we achieved substantial reduction in both BGP convergence time and the total number of intermediate route changes.INFOCOM 2002. Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE; 01/2002