Sex steroid receptors in male human bladder: expression and biological function.
ABSTRACT In male, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have been associated, beside benign prostatic hyperplasia, to some unexpected comorbidities (hypogonadism, obesity, metabolic syndrome), which are essentially characterized by an unbalance between circulating androgens/estrogens. Within the bladder, LUTS are linked to RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway overactivity.
To investigate the effects of changing sex steroids on bladder smooth muscle.
ER α, ER β, GPR30/GPER1 and aromatase mRNA expression was analyzed in male genitourinary tract tissues, and cells isolated from bladder, prostate, and urethra. Estrogen and G1 effect on RhoA/ROCK signaling output like cell migration, gene expression, and cytoskeletal remodeling, and [Ca(2+) ](i) was also studied in hB cells. Contractile studies on bladder strips from castrated male rats supplemented with estradiol and testosterone was also performed.
The effects of classical (ER α, ER β) and nonclassical (GPR30/GPER1) estrogen receptor ligands (17 β-estradiol and G1, respectively) and androgens on RhoA/ROCK-.mediated cell functions were studied in hB cells. Contractility studies were also performed in bladder strips from castrated male rats supplemented with testosterone or estradiol.
Aromatase and sex steroid receptors, including GPR30, were expressed in human bladder and mediates several biological functions. Both 17 β-estradiol and G1 activated calcium transients and induced RhoA/ROCK signaling (cell migration, cytoskeleton remodeling and smooth muscle gene expression). RhoA/ROCK inhibitors blunted these effects. Estrogen-, but not androgen-supplementation to castrated rats increased sensitivity to the ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632 in isolated bladder strips. In hB cells, testosterone elicited effects similar to estrogen, which were abrogated by blocking its aromatization through letrozole.
Our data indicate for the first time that estrogen-more than androgen-receptors up-regulate RhoA/ROCK signaling. Since an altered estrogen/androgen ratio characterizes conditions, such as aging, obesity and metabolic syndrome, often associated to LUTS, we speculate that a relative hyperestrogenism may induce bladder overactivity through the up-regulation of RhoA/ROCK pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have highlighted a strong association between benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED), particularly in elderly men. Many epidemiological trials, such as in vitro and in vivo studies, have reported the emerging role of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hypertension, in the development and progression of urinary and sexual symptoms. Moreover, many authors have focused their studies on the identification of all the shared pathogenetic mechanisms of LUTS/BPH and ED, including alteration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and RhoA-ROCK pathways or vascular and neurogenic dysfunction. All these are potential targets for proposed phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is). Therefore, several trials have recently been designed to evaluate the role of PDE5-Is alone or in combination with conventional treatment for BPH, such as α-adrenergic blockers, in men affected by LUTS/BPH, with or without ED. Different PDE5-Is are in clinical use worldwide and currently six of them are licensed for the oral treatment of ED. All these compounds differ in pharmacokinetic factors, with influence on drug action, and subsequently in the overall safety and efficacy profile.Drugs & Aging 06/2014; 31(6). · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are conditions extremely prevalent in the aging male. Although androgens are involved in prostate growth during developmental age, their role in the pathogenesis of BPH/LUTS is debated. Recent data indicate that low testosterone and high estradiol favor disease progression. In addition, the role of other determinants, such as metabolic syndrome or prostate inflammation, is emerging. We reviewed the evidence regarding the pathogenesis of BPH/LUTS with particular attention to metabolic influence. A review of published evidence was performed using Medline. Available evidence shows that a three-hit hypothesis can be drawn. An overt, or even a subclinical, bacterial or viral infection could induce prostatic inflammation (first hit) that could be autosustained or exacerbated by the presence of an altered metabolism and in particular by hypercholesterolemia (second hit). Hypogonadism and/or hyperestrogenism could act as a third hit, favoring the maintenance of this inflammatory state. The combined action of all three hits, or even two of them, may result in overexpression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), transformation of prostatic cells into antigen-presenting cells and activation of resident human prostate-associated lymphoid tissue ending in overproduction of growth factors which, in turn, will induce prostate remodeling and further prostate enlargement. The mechanical obstruction, along with the direct action of the unfavorable metabolic and hormonal milieu on the bladder neck, helps in generating LUTS. Inflammation, dyslipidemia and altered sex-steroid milieu mutually concur in determining BPH/LUTS.Journal of endocrinological investigation 01/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are often associated. Bladder detrusor hyper-contractility-a major LUTS determinant-is characterized by increased Ras homolog gene family, member A/Rho-associated protein kinase (RhoA/ROCK) signaling, which is often upregulated in MetS. This study investigated the effects of tadalafil dosing on RhoA/ROCK signaling in bladder, in a rabbit model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS. Adult male rabbits feeding a HFD for 12 weeks. A subset of HFD animals was treated with tadalafil (2 mg/kg/day, 1 week: the last of the 12 weeks) and compared with HFD and control (feeding a regular diet) rabbits. In vitro contractility studies to evaluate the relaxant effect of the selective ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, in carbachol precontracted bladder strips. Evaluation of RhoA activation by its membrane translocation. Immunohistochemistry for ROCK expression has been performed to evaluate ROCK expression in bladder from the different experimental groups. mRNA expression of inflammation, pro-fibrotic markers by quantitative RT-PCR has been performed to evaluate the effect of tadalafil on MetS-induced inflammation and fibrosis within the bladder. The in vitro effect of tadalafil on RhoA/ROCK signaling in bladder smooth muscle cells was evaluated by using chemotaxis assay. Bladder strips from HFD rabbits showed hyper-responsiveness to Y-27632, indicating RhoA/ROCK overactivity in HFD bladder compared with matched controls. Accordingly, the fraction of activated (translocated to the membrane) RhoA as well as ROCK expression are increased in HFD bladder. Tadalafil dosing normalized HFD-induced bladder hypersensitivity to Y-27632, by reducing RhoA membrane translocation and ROCK overexpression. Tadalafil dosing reduced mRNA expression of inflammatory, pro-fibrotic, and hypoxia markers. A direct inhibitory effect of tadalafil on RhoA/ROCK signaling in bladder smooth muscle cell was demonstrated by using chemotaxis assay. Pre-treatment with tadalafil inhibited both basal and PDGF-induced migration of bladder smooth muscle cells. Tadalafil dosing reduced RhoA/ROCK signaling and smooth muscle overactivity in an animal model of MetS-associated bladder alterations. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of action of tadalafil in alleviating LUTS in MetS patients. Vignozzi L, Filippi S, Comeglio P, Cellai I, Morelli A, Maneschi E, Sarchielli E, Gacci M, Carini M, Vannelli GB, and Maggi M. Tadalafil effect on metabolic syndrome-associated bladder alterations: An experimental study in a rabbit model. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.Journal of Sexual Medicine 02/2014; · 3.51 Impact Factor