Structural characterization of Brachypodium genome and its syntenic relationship with rice and wheat.

Genomics and Gene Discovery Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Western Regional Research Center, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, USA.
Plant Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.52). 01/2009; DOI: 10.1007/s11103-009-9456-3
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has been recently recognized as an emerging model system for both comparative and functional genomics in grass species. In this study, 55,221 repeat masked Brachypodium BAC end sequences (BES) were used for comparative analysis against the 12 rice pseudomolecules. The analysis revealed that ~26.4% of BES have significant matches with the rice genome and 82.4% of the matches were homologous to known genes. Further analysis of paired-end BES and ~1.0 Mb sequences from nine selected BACs proved to be useful in revealing conserved regions and regions that have undergone considerable genomic changes. Differential gene amplification, insertions/deletions and inversions appeared to be the common evolutionary events that caused variations of microcolinearity at different orthologous genomic regions. It was found that ~17% of genes in the two genomes are not colinear in the orthologous regions. Analysis of BAC sequences also revealed higher gene density (~9 kb/gene) and lower repeat DNA content (~13.1%) in Brachypodium when compared to the orthologous rice regions, consistent with the smaller size of the Brachypodium genome. The 119 annotated Brachypodium genes were BLASTN compared against the wheat EST database and deletion bin mapped wheat ESTs. About 77% of the genes retrieved significant matches in the EST database, while 9.2% matched to the bin mapped ESTs. In some cases, genes in single Brachypodium BACs matched to multiple ESTs that were mapped to the same deletion bins, suggesting that the Brachypodium genome will be useful for ordering wheat ESTs within the deletion bins and developing specific markers at targeted regions in the wheat genome.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wheat is one of the world's most important crops and is characterized by a large polyploid genome. One way to reduce genome complexity is to isolate single chromosomes using flow cytometry. Low coverage DNA sequencing can provide a snapshot of individual chromosomes, allowing a fast characterization of their main features and comparison with other genomes. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a 2x coverage of wheat chromosome 5A. The resulting sequence assembly was used to identify TEs, genes and miRNAs, as well as to infer a virtual gene order based on the synteny with other grass genomes. Repetitive elements account for more than 75% of the genome. Gene content was estimated considering non-redundant reads showing at least one match to ESTs or proteins. The results indicate that the coding fraction represents 1.08% and 1.3% of the short and long arm respectively, projecting the number of genes of the whole chromosome to approximately 5,000. 195 candidate miRNA precursors belonging to 16 miRNA families were identified. The 5A genes were used to search for syntenic relationships between grass genomes. The short arm is closely related to Brachypodium chromosome 4, sorghum chromosome 8 and rice chromosome 12; the long arm to regions of Brachypodium chromosomes 4 and 1, sorghum chromosomes 1 and 2 and rice chromosomes 9 and 3. From these similarities it was possible to infer the virtual gene order of 392 (5AS) and 1,480 (5AL) genes of chromosome 5A, which was compared to, and found to be largely congruent with the available physical map of this chromosome.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e26421. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The expression of genes involved in starch synthesis in wheat was analyzed together with the accumulation profiles of soluble sugars, starch, protein, and starch granule distribution in developing caryopses obtained from the same biological materials used for profiling of gene expression using DNA microarrays. Multiple expression patterns were detected for the different starch biosynthetic gene isoforms, suggesting their relative importance through caryopsis development. Members of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, starch branching enzyme, and sucrose synthase gene families showed different expression profiles; expression of some members of these gene families coincided with a period of high accumulation of starch while others did not. A biphasic pattern was observed in the rates of starch and protein accumulation which paralleled changes in global gene expression. Metabolic and regulatory genes that show a pattern of expression similar to starch accumulation and granule size distribution were identified, suggesting their coinvolvement in these biological processes.
    International Journal of Plant Genomics 01/2009; 2009:407426.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Contents Summary334I.Introduction335II.A challenge for the Brachypodium Tool Box: the legacy of cereal domestication335III.Opening the Brachypodium Tool Box: what is Brachypodium?336IV.The Brachypodium Tool Box: where are we now?337V.Targets for the Brachypodium Tool Box: key traits342VI.Whence for the Brachypodium Tool box? Primus inter pares?344 Acknowledgements345 References345SummaryIt is now a decade since Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) was suggested as a model species for temperate grasses and cereals. Since then transformation protocols, large expressed sequence tag (EST) databases, tools for forward and reverse genetic screens, highly refined cytogenetic probes, germplasm collections and, recently, a complete genome sequence have been generated. In this review, we will describe the current status of the Brachypodium Tool Box and how it is beginning to be applied to study a range of biological traits. Further, as genomic analysis of larger cereals and forage grasses genomes are becoming easier, we will re-evaluate Brachypodium as a model species. We suggest that there remains an urgent need to employ reverse genetic and functional genomic approaches to identify the functionality of key genetic elements, which could be employed subsequently in plant breeding programmes; and a requirement for a Pooideae reference genome to aid assembling large pooid genomes. Brachypodium is an ideal system for functional genomic studies, because of its easy growth requirements, small physical stature, and rapid life cycle, coupled with the resources offered by the Brachypodium Tool Box.
    New Phytologist 05/2011; 191(2):334 - 347. · 6.74 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014