The General Applicability of in Situ Transesterification for the Production of Fatty Acid Esters from a Variety of Feedstocks.

Journal of Oil & Fat Industries (Impact Factor: 1.62). 09/2007; 84(10). DOI: 10.1007/s11746-007-1119-4
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT We previously described a method for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production wherein acylglycerol transesterification was achieved by reacting flaked full fat soybeans with alkaline methanol to create a product that met ASTM specifications for biodiesel. In the present work we explore the general applicability of this approach, termed in situ transesterification, to feedstocks other than soybeans. Materials investigated were distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which is a co-product of the production of ethanol from corn, and meat and bone meal (MBM), a product of animal rendering. For both feedstocks, reaction conditions giving maximum lipid transesterification were predicted by statistical experimental design and response surface regression analysis, and then verified experimentally. Successful transesterification was achieved at ambient pressure and 35 °C. For DDGS, partial drying markedly reduced the methanol requirement to achieve a high degree (91.1% of maximum theoretical) of transesterification. Elevated reaction temperatures (to 55 °C was explored) caused little or no shortening of the time to completion. Protein was not removed from the DDGS during this treatment. For MBM, drying was not required to achieve a high degree (93.3%) of transesterification. The remaining meal retained approximately 90% of the protein originally present. Coupled with the previous work with soybeans, the data presented here indicate that in situ transesterification is generally applicable to lipid-bearing materials, which could substantially increase the supply of biodiesel.

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Available from: Karen Michele Wagner, Mar 12, 2014
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    • "Normally, high acyl acceptor volume for increasing lipids diffusion and FAME yield has been used in biomass transesterification (Ehimen et al., 2010). Acyl acceptor excess plays also a role as extraction solvent, improving the contact between catalyst and biomass, altering the permeability of the solid substrate (Haas et al., 2007). Besides, acyl acceptor excess is responsible for breaking linkages between glycerin and fatty acids during the reaction (Hidalgo et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Direct transesterification of Botryococcus braunii with continuous acyl acceptor reflux was evaluated. This method combines in one step lipid extraction and esterification/transesterification. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) synthesis by direct conversion of microalgal biomass was carried out using sulfuric acid as catalyst and methanol as acyl acceptor. In this system, once lipids are extracted, they are contacted with the catalyst and methanol reaching 82%wt of FAME yield. To optimize the reaction conditions, a factorial design using surface response methodology was applied. The effects of catalyst concentration and co-solvent concentration were studied. Hexane was used as co-solvent for increasing lipid extraction performance. The incorporation of hexane in the reaction provoked an increase in FAME yield from 82% (pure methanol) to 95% when a 47%v/v of hexane was incorporated in the reaction. However, the selectivity towards non-saponifiable lipids such as sterols was increased, negatively affecting biodiesel quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioresource Technology 01/2015; 181C:32-39. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.047 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    • "L (Haas et al., 2007). To meet the demand for low-cost biofuels biodiesel is produced with vegetable oil and waste animal fats (Snare et al., 2009), but a growing demand needs to consider other sources of vegetable oil. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a crop used to produce oil and has generated interest to obtain alternative fuels to oil. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal conditions for the methanolysis reaction of crude palm oil (ACP), to synthesize biodiesel in laboratory conditions. A central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the efficiency of the process. The variables studied were methanol concentration (between 40 and 100 % p/p), catalyst concentration (2-4 % w/w), reaction time (40-60 min) and reaction temperature (50-66 °C). Methanol and catalyst concentrations and reaction time showed a significant effect. The optimal conditions for the synthesis of palm biodiesel were: methanol concentration 55 % (w/w) catalyst 2 % (w/w), reaction time 135 min and 54 °C as reaction temperature. With these conditions the yield was 80.65 % of biodiesel with ACP, in laboratory, with low energy consumption and short reaction time, which would reduce production and operating costs. Key words: alkaline catalysis, Elaeis guineensis Jacq, methanolysis, process optimization, response surface.
    Agrociencia 10/2013; 47:649. · 0.05 Impact Factor
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    • "This paper looks further at the use the alternate one-step in-situ transesterification process for the production of biodiesel from microalgae biomass as described in [1]. The application of the one step in-situ transesterification method for biodiesel production has been discussed to potentially lead to the reduction of the energetic, raw material and economic process requirements when compared to the use of the conventional oil extraction and transesterification process [2]. This paper investigates the possibility of reducing the large reacting alcohol volumes (molar ratio of reacting alcohol to Chlorella oil of > 350:1) described in [1] to be required for the in-situ transesterification process to obtain high fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields. "
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    ABSTRACT: The conversion of microalgae lipids to biodiesel has been increasingly investigated, with the use of the in-situ transesterification method reported in the literature to lead to improved alkyl ester conversions for this feedstock compared with the use of the conventional two staged oil extraction and transesterification process. To further improve the feasibility of the use of the in-situ method, this paper investigates modifications to reduce the large process methanol requirements, and potentially improve the oil to methyl esters conversion and biodiesel yields. The results obtained showed that use of ultrasound agitation for the in-situ process, as well as combining this stirring regime with co-solvent use (n-pentane and diethyl ether) significantly improved the Chlorella oil to methyl esters conversion with reduced reacting methanol volumes.
    12/2012; 15:47–55. DOI:10.1016/j.proenv.2012.05.009
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