The General Applicability of in Situ Transesterification for the Production of Fatty Acid Esters from a Variety of Feedstocks.

Journal of Oil & Fat Industries (Impact Factor: 1.59). 01/2007; DOI: 10.1007/s11746-007-1119-4
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT We previously described a method for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production wherein acylglycerol transesterification was achieved by reacting flaked full fat soybeans with alkaline methanol to create a product that met ASTM specifications for biodiesel. In the present work we explore the general applicability of this approach, termed in situ transesterification, to feedstocks other than soybeans. Materials investigated were distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which is a co-product of the production of ethanol from corn, and meat and bone meal (MBM), a product of animal rendering. For both feedstocks, reaction conditions giving maximum lipid transesterification were predicted by statistical experimental design and response surface regression analysis, and then verified experimentally. Successful transesterification was achieved at ambient pressure and 35 °C. For DDGS, partial drying markedly reduced the methanol requirement to achieve a high degree (91.1% of maximum theoretical) of transesterification. Elevated reaction temperatures (to 55 °C was explored) caused little or no shortening of the time to completion. Protein was not removed from the DDGS during this treatment. For MBM, drying was not required to achieve a high degree (93.3%) of transesterification. The remaining meal retained approximately 90% of the protein originally present. Coupled with the previous work with soybeans, the data presented here indicate that in situ transesterification is generally applicable to lipid-bearing materials, which could substantially increase the supply of biodiesel.

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    BioEnergy Research 01/2012; 5(2). · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent increase in the world biofuels demand, along with the need to reduce costs while improving the environmental sustainability of the biodiesel production, have led to the search for catalysts that should be economically viable, efficient, and environmentally friendly. This paper reviews recent research and development of organic and inorganic tin catalysts; focusing on kinetic properties and catalytic activity in two key reactions for biodiesel production: free fatty acids (FFA) esterification and triglycerides (TG) transesterification. First the basic knowledge of homogeneous tin catalysts in esterification reactions of different carboxylic acids is provided. Second, main advances obtained in the study of FFA esterification reactions catalyzed by tin chloride are covered. The effect of the principal parameters of reaction on the yield and rate of alkyl esters production is described. Kinetic measurements allowed the determination of the activation energy (46.79 kJ mol−1) and a first-order dependence in relation to both FFA and tin chloride catalyst concentration. Aspects related to recycling of the tin chloride catalyst in phase homogeneous are discussed. Third the advances obtained in the development of homogeneous catalysts based on tin complexes in transesterification reactions are summarized. Finally, results obtained from the use of tin organometallics compounds in reactions of vegetable oils transesterification reactions are concisely presented. The optimization of processes catalytic homogeneous utilized in the transesterification reactions can contribute to the improvement of the technology biodiesel production.
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