The General Applicability of in Situ Transesterification for the Production of Fatty Acid Esters from a Variety of Feedstocks.

Journal of Oil & Fat Industries (Impact Factor: 1.62). 09/2007; DOI: 10.1007/s11746-007-1119-4
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT We previously described a method for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production wherein acylglycerol transesterification was achieved by reacting flaked full fat soybeans with alkaline methanol to create a product that met ASTM specifications for biodiesel. In the present work we explore the general applicability of this approach, termed in situ transesterification, to feedstocks other than soybeans. Materials investigated were distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which is a co-product of the production of ethanol from corn, and meat and bone meal (MBM), a product of animal rendering. For both feedstocks, reaction conditions giving maximum lipid transesterification were predicted by statistical experimental design and response surface regression analysis, and then verified experimentally. Successful transesterification was achieved at ambient pressure and 35 °C. For DDGS, partial drying markedly reduced the methanol requirement to achieve a high degree (91.1% of maximum theoretical) of transesterification. Elevated reaction temperatures (to 55 °C was explored) caused little or no shortening of the time to completion. Protein was not removed from the DDGS during this treatment. For MBM, drying was not required to achieve a high degree (93.3%) of transesterification. The remaining meal retained approximately 90% of the protein originally present. Coupled with the previous work with soybeans, the data presented here indicate that in situ transesterification is generally applicable to lipid-bearing materials, which could substantially increase the supply of biodiesel.

  • Source
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 01/2013; · 5.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (AOX, ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9 ± 1.4 kg BW, 36 ± 2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with AOX (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and AOX; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet, with non-oxidized oil, and no PUFA source The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P < 0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, compared to the SC pigs, decreased dressing percentage (74.2 vs. 65.7%), greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%), and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P < 0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P = 0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24 h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P = 0.07). The AOX addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P > 0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater concentration of DHA in backfat (P < 0.001); switching the diet on d 83 resulted in HO pigs having a similar fatty acid profile to SC at d 118 pigs. Vitamin E concentration in plasma and muscle was greater in HO and SC than VE, AOX, and VE+AOX on d 118. Feeding the high oxidant diet caused a series of changes in carcass characteristics and meat quality. Addition of AOX attenuated many of these, whereas the protective effects of supplemental vitamin E at 11 IU/kg were minimal during the finisher phase of the study.
    Journal of Animal Science 11/2014; 92(12). DOI:10.2527/jas.2013-7112 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present work the alkali in-situ transesterification of rapeseed with methanol for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Experiments were designed to determine how variations in molar ratio of methanol to oil in seeds, amount of alkali catalyst, time and temperature affected the yield. Good results (90%) conversion of seed lipid to fatty acid methyl ester was obtained at 0.02 N catalyst concentration, 720/1 methanol to rapeseed oil molar ratio, 1 h reaction time and 65 °C reaction temperature. The results were in agreement with the values measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy. A mass balance and a preliminary feasibility study were investigated. A techno-economic analysis of the process for production of biodiesel from rapeseed with a capacity of 50,000 t/yr was presented to investigate the profitability indicators of the production capacity. The techno-economic indicators showed that total capital investment of $16,065,000, gross profit/year of $14,630,300, and percentage simple rate of return (%SRR) was 79.5% for a constant estimated price of $945/t while the specific biodiesel prices for SRR% of 10 and 50 were $722 and $850 respectively.
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 02/2013; 18:471-477. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2012.10.033 · 5.51 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014