Long-term use of entecavir in nucleoside-naïve Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis B infection
ABSTRACT To evaluate the long-term efficacy of entecavir in nucleoside-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients.
One hundred and sixty-seven patients treated with entecavir 0.01mg, 0.1mg or 0.5mg for 24-52weeks in Phase II studies entered rollover study ETV-060 and received entecavir 0.5mg daily. Responses were evaluated among patients with available samples.
After 96weeks in ETV-060 (120-148weeks total entecavir treatment time), 88% (127/144) of patients had HBV-DNA <400 copies/ml; 90.1% (128/142) had alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 1x the upper limit of normal (ULN) among those with abnormal baseline ALT; and 26% (32/121) achieved HBe seroconversion among those HBeAg(+) at baseline. A subset of 66 patients received entecavir 0.5mg (approved dose) from Phase II baseline: at week 96 in ETV-060, 83% (48/58) had HBV-DNA <400 copies/ml, 88% (52/59) had ALT 1x ULN, and 20% (10/49) achieved HBe seroconversion. Twenty-one out of 66 patients had paired baseline and on-treatment biopsies: 100% (21/21) and 57% (12/21) demonstrated histologic improvement, and improvement in fibrosis, respectively, over 3years. The 3-year cumulative probability of resistance was 3.3% for all patients and 1.7% for the 0.5mg subset.
Long-term entecavir for nucleoside-naïve patients resulted in high rates of virological, biochemical, and histological response, with minimal resistance.
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ABSTRACT: Current Japanese guidelines recommend that patients should be switched from lamivudine to entecavir when they meet certain criteria. This analysis examines the efficacy and safety of long-term entecavir therapy in patients who were switched to entecavir after 24 weeks' lamivudine therapy in Japanese studies ETV-047 and ETV-060. The Phase II Japanese study ETV-047 assessed the efficacy of different entecavir doses when compared with lamivudine. A total of 33 Japanese patients who received lamivudine 100 mg daily in ETV-047 entered the open-label rollover study ETV-060 and subsequently received treatment with entecavir 0.5 mg daily. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA suppression, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and resistance were evaluated among patients with available samples for up to 96 weeks. Safety was assessed throughout the treatment period. After 96 weeks of entecavir therapy in ETV-060, 90% of patients achieved HBV DNA <400 copies/mL as compared to 21% of patients who completed 24 weeks of lamivudine therapy in ETV-047. Increasing proportions of patients achieved ALT normalization and HBeAg seroconversion following long-term entecavir treatment. No patients experienced virologic breakthrough, and substitutions associated with entecavir resistance were not observed in patients with detectable HBV DNA. Entecavir was well tolerated during long-term treatment. Switching lamivudine-treated patients with chronic hepatitis B to entecavir results in increased virologic suppression with no evidence of resistance through 2 years of entecavir therapy. These findings support recommendations in the current Japanese treatment guidelines that stable lamivudine patients should be switched to entecavir.Hepatology International 09/2010; 4(3):594-600. DOI:10.1007/s12072-010-9185-3 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Treatment with nucleotide analogs is known to be effective in inhibiting HBV replication; however, patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) often show a wide range of clinical responses to these drugs. Therefore, the identification of an early immunologic marker associated with the clinical outcomes in such cases is critical for the improved clinical management. In our study, we aimed to investigate whether the viral load in CHB patients affected the ratio of the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to the number of interleukin-17-producing helper (Th17) cells. Further, we evaluated the clinical implications of the alterations in this ratio. Nine patients seropositive for hepatitis B e antigen received entecavir monotherapy for 12 months and the percentages of Tregs and Th17 cells as well as the HBV-specific IL-17 productions in these patients were longitudinally analyzed. The entecavir-induced suppression of HBV replication was accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of Th17 cells, together with a decrease in Treg cells, which lead to a significant reduction of Treg/Th17 ratios. In addition, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exhibited a decreased IL-17 production upon stimulation with the HBV core antigen in vitro. The inhibition of viral replication results in an increase in Th17 cells and concomitant decrease in Treg cells. This imbalance of Treg cells to Th17 cells might have an important role in HBV persistence during entecavir treatment.PLoS ONE 11/2010; 5(11):e13869. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0013869 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a dynamic series of interactions between HBV, hepatocytes and the patient's immune system. HBV replication is the key motor of disease progression, including the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV elimination or suppression can reduce the risk of or slow the progression of liver disease. Studies have shown that a finite course of conventional interferon-α (IFN) therapy provides long-term benefit for achieving a cumulative response as well as reducing the progression of fibrosis and the development of cirrhosis and/or HCC. Long-term therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) may also improve fibrosis or reverse advanced fibrosis as well as reduce disease progression and the development of HCC. The problems associated with drug resistance can be overcome by the timely use of rescue NUCs without cross-resistance. The outcome with pegylated IFN (PEG-IFN) and newer NUCs may be even better because of more effective treatment and/or a low risk of resistance. However, the treatment outcomes still need to be improved, and more effective, safe and affordable anti-HBV agents/strategies are needed.Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 01/2011; 31 Suppl 1:117-21. DOI:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02388.x · 4.41 Impact Factor