Proteomic and functional characterization of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant lacking the mitochondrial alternative oxidase 1.
ABSTRACT In the present work, we have isolated by RNA interference and characterized at the functional and the proteomic levels a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain devoid of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1). The AOX1-deficient strain displays a remarkable doubling of the cell volume and biomass without alteration of the generation time or change in total respiratory rate, with a significantly higher ROS production. To identify the molecular adaptation underlying these observations, we have carried out a comparative study of both the mitochondrial and the cellular soluble proteomes. Our results indicate a strong up-regulation of the ROS scavenging systems and important quantitative modifications of proteins involved in the primary metabolism, namely an increase of enzymes involved in anabolic pathways and a concomitant general down-regulation of enzymes of the main catabolic pathways.
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic control of gene expression coordinates the levels of specific gene products to meet cellular demand for their activities. This control can be exerted by metabolites acting as regulatory signals and/or a class of metabolic enzymes with dual functions as regulators of gene expression. However, little is known about how metabolic signals affect the balance between enzymatic and regulatory roles of these dual functional proteins. We previously described the RNA binding activity of a 63 kDa chloroplast protein from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which has been implicated in expression of the psbA mRNA, encoding the D1 protein of photosystem II. Here, we identify this factor as dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DLA2), a subunit of the chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (cpPDC), which is known to provide acetyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis. Analyses of RNAi lines revealed that DLA2 is involved in the synthesis of both D1 and acetyl-CoA. Gel filtration analyses demonstrated an RNP complex containing DLA2 and the chloroplast psbA mRNA specifically in cells metabolizing acetate. An intrinsic RNA binding activity of DLA2 was confirmed by in vitro RNA binding assays. Results of fluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation experiments support a role of DLA2 in acetate-dependent localization of the psbA mRNA to a translation zone within the chloroplast. Reciprocally, the activity of the cpPDC was specifically affected by binding of psbA mRNA. Beyond that, in silico analysis and in vitro RNA binding studies using recombinant proteins support the possibility that RNA binding is an ancient feature of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferases. Our results suggest a regulatory function of DLA2 in response to growth on reduced carbon energy sources. This raises the intriguing possibility that this regulation functions to coordinate the synthesis of lipids and proteins for the biogenesis of photosynthetic membranes.PLoS Biology 02/2013; 11(2):e1001482. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. While respiratory carbon oxidation pathways, electron transport, and ATP turnover are tightly coupled processes, AOX provides a means to relax this coupling, thus providing a degree of metabolic homeostasis to carbon and energy metabolism. Beside their role in primary metabolism, plant mitochondria also act as "signaling organelles", able to influence processes such as nuclear gene expression. AOX activity can control the level of potential mitochondrial signaling molecules such as superoxide, nitric oxide and important redox couples. In this way, AOX also provides a degree of signaling homeostasis to the organelle. Evidence suggests that AOX function in metabolic and signaling homeostasis is particularly important during stress. These include abiotic stresses such as low temperature, drought, and nutrient deficiency, as well as biotic stresses such as bacterial infection. This review provides an introduction to the genetic and biochemical control of AOX respiration, as well as providing generalized examples of how AOX activity can provide metabolic and signaling homeostasis. This review also examines abiotic and biotic stresses in which AOX respiration has been critically evaluated, and considers the overall role of AOX in growth and stress tolerance.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(4):6805-47. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The metabolism of microalgae is so flexible that it is not an easy task to give a comprehensive description of the interplay between the various metabolic pathways. There are however constraints that govern central carbon metabolism in Chlamydomonas that are revealed by the compartmentalization and regulation of the pathways and their relation to key cellular processes such as cell motility, division, carbon uptake and partitioning, external and internal rhythms and nutrient stress. Both photosynthetic and mitochondrial electron transfer provide energy for metabolic processes and how energy transfer impacts metabolism and vice versa is a means of exploring the regulation and function of these pathways. A key example is the specific chloroplast localization of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and how it impacts the redox poise and ATP budget of the plastid in the dark. To compare starch and lipids as carbon reserves, their value can be calculated in terms of NAD(P)H and ATP. As microalgae are now considered as a potential renewable feedstock, we examine current work on the subject and also explore the possibility of rerouting metabolism towards lipid production.Eukaryotic Cell 03/2013; · 3.59 Impact Factor