The mucilage proteome of maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots.
ABSTRACT Maize (Zea mays L.) root cap cells secrete a large variety of compounds including proteins via an amorphous gel structure called mucilage into the rhizosphere. In the present study, mucilage secreted by primary roots of 3-4 day old maize seedlings was collected under axenic conditions, and the constitutively secreted proteome was analyzed. A total of 2848 distinct extracellular proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS. Among those, metabolic proteins (approximately 25%) represented the largest class of annotated proteins. Comprehensive sets of proteins involved in cell wall metabolism, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, stress response, or nutrient acquisition provided detailed insights in functions required at the root-soil interface. For 85-94% of the mucilage proteins previously identified in the relatively small data sets of the dicot species pea, Arabidopsis, and rapeseed, a close homologue was identified in the mucilage proteome of the monocot model plant maize, suggesting a considerable degree of conservation between mono and dicot mucilage proteomes. Homologues of a core set of 12 maize proteins including three superoxide dismutases and four chitinases, which provide protection from fungal infections, were present in all three mucilage proteomes investigated thus far in the dicot species Arabidopsis, rapeseed, and pea and might therefore be of particular importance.
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ABSTRACT: Optimal nitrogen (N) supply is critical for achieving high grain yield of maize. It is well established that N deficiency significantly reduces grain yield and N oversupply reduces N use efficiency without significant yield increase. However, the underlying proteomic mechanism remains poorly understood. The present field study showed that N deficiency significantly reduced ear size and dry matter accumulation in the cob and grain, directly resulting in a significant decrease in grain yield. The N content, biomass accumulation, and proteomic variations were further analysed in young ears at the silking stage under different N regimes. N deficiency significantly reduced N content and biomass accumulation in young ears of maize plants. Proteomic analysis identified 47 proteins with significant differential accumulation in young ears under different N treatments. Eighteen proteins also responded to other abiotic and biotic stresses, suggesting that N nutritional imbalance triggered a general stress response. Importantly, 24 proteins are involved in regulation of hormonal metabolism and functions, ear development, and C/N metabolism in young ears, indicating profound impacts of N nutrition on ear growth and grain yield at the proteomic level.Journal of Experimental Botany 09/2012; 63(14):5275-88. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are complex proteoglycans of the cell wall found in the entire plant kingdom and in almost all plant organs. AGPs encompass a large group of heavily glycosylated cell-wall proteins which share common features, including the presence of glycan chains especially enriched in arabinose and galactose and a protein backbone particularly rich in hydroxyproline residues. However, AGPs also exhibit strong heterogeneities among their members in various plant species. AGP ubiquity in plants suggests these proteoglycans are fundamental players for plant survival and development. SCOPE: In this review, we first present an overview of current knowledge and specific features of AGPs. A section devoted to major tools used to study AGPs is also presented. We then discuss the distribution of AGPs as well as various aspects of their functional properties in root tissues and pollen tubes. This review also suggests novel directions of research on the role of AGPs in the biology of roots and pollen tubes.Annals of Botany 07/2012; 110(2):383-404. · 3.45 Impact Factor
Article: Plant secretome proteomics.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The plant secretome refers to the set of proteins secreted out of the plant cell into the surrounding extracellular space commonly referred to as the apoplast. Secreted proteins maintain cell structure and acts in signaling and are crucial for stress responses where they can interact with pathogen effectors and control the extracellular environment. Typically, secreted proteins contain an N-terminal signal peptide and are directed through the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway. However, in plants many proteins found in the secretome lack such a signature and might follow alternative ways of secretion. This review covers techniques to isolate plant secretomes and how to identify and quantify their constituent proteins. Furthermore, bioinformatical tools to predict secretion signals and define the putative secretome are presented. Findings from proteomic studies and important protein families of plant secretomes, such as proteases and hydrolases, are highlighted.Frontiers in Plant Science 01/2013; 4:9.