Quantifying the Total Environmental Impacts of an Industrial Symbiosis - a Comparison of Process-, Hybrid and Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment
ABSTRACT Industrial symbiosis, representing resource sharing and byproduct use among colocated firms, is a key concept of industrial ecology. Local co-operation in industrial symbioses can reduce raw material use and waste disposal, but material and energy flows extending outside symbiosis boundaries can cause considerable environmental impacts. These external impacts are often ignored in industrial symbiosis studies. In this study, we compared process, hybrid and input-output life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches in quantifying the overall environmental impacts of a forest industrial symbiosis, situated in Kymenlaakso, Finland. Conclusions from an earlier process-LCA were strengthened by the use of hybrid-LCA as local emissions were found to cause less than half of the global impacts. In some impact categories, the whole impact was caused by supply chain emissions (land use, metal depletion and ozone depletion). The cutoff in process-LCA was found to be less than 25%, except in metal depletion and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Input-output LCA approximated hybrid-LCA results well in most impact categories, but seriously underestimated land use and overestimated terrestrial ecotoxicity. Based on the results we conclude, that input-output based LCA can be used to analyze the global impacts of an industrial symbiosis, but a careful interpretation of the results is necessary in order to understand the influence of aggregation and allocation.
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- "Industrial Symbiosis (IS) is a growingly accepted paradigm for processing waste into material, energy and water with benefits to participants measured by economic, environmental and social gains. Although the practice of IS has demonstrated the need for evaluating these benefits either in the process of screening of impending options or monitoring the operation of symbiotic networks , and despite of some attempts to quantify them (Van Berkel, 2010; Mattila et al., 2010; Berkel et al., 2009), no unified metrics or methods for calculating concomitant indicators has been proposed (Eckelman and Chertow, 2009; Jacobsen, 2006a). Consequently, evaluation of IS networks performance has been identified as deficient (Martin et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Industrial Symbiosis (IS) is a growingly accepted paradigm for processing waste into material, energy and water with benefits to participants measured by economic, environmental and social gains. Despite of some attempts to quantify them no unified metrics or methods for calculating concomitant indicators have been proposed. This paper presents a systemisation of IS relevant environmental metrics and a semantic approach based on knowledge modelling using ontologies to facilitate “a priori” calculation of respective indicators. The approach and metrics are presented and verified with a case study.Journal of Cleaner Production 06/2015; 96:349-361. DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.12.046 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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- "The advantage of the MRIO framework is that it provides an extended system boundary (Acquaye and Duffy, 2010, Mattila et al., 2010, Wiedmann et al., 2011), as such a whole lifecycle perspective is achieved. "
ABSTRACT: Environmental initiatives such as carbon labelling have been suggested as a driver for achieving sustainable production systems of product supply chains. The paper therefore presents a systematic process of developing an environmental labelling framework as an extension of carbon labelling using the fairtrade certification as a platform to facilitate the process. Using the general theoretical constructs of lifecycle assessments, the framework presented provides insight into the formulation of multi-regional supply chains which has been specifically characterised in this paper for the UK-India-Rest of the World supply chain. The environmental labelling process presented in this paper is based on two key principles; Quantitative Principle in Eco-labelling and the Principle of Whole Lifecycle Perspective and it is used to inform two key stakeholder groups in the supply chain: consumers and supply chain partners. For consumers, a consistent way of presenting the environmental label information is presented highlighting the supply chain impacts across the indicators of CO2-eq emissions, water consumption and land use in addition to regional contributions to these impacts from a global supply chain perspective. Additionally, communicating the environmental impacts to supply chain partners provides a decision support to take actions to reduce the overall impacts by identifying processes within the global supply chain that needed prioritization. Given that fairtrade partnership is based on participatory development and a strict guidelines and standardization process, it is envisaged that synergies can be derived by integrating environmental labelling with the fairtrade scheme to enhance the environmental sustainability of product supply chains.International Journal of Production Economics 12/2014; 164. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.12.014 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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- "Hence, in terms of supply chain visibility, the supply chain of a given product can be set up in such a way that not only direct inputs are captured, but also, irrespective of the origin of these inputs (domestic or imported), indirect supply chain input can also be captured in the analysis. This is as a result of the extended system boundary of the IO framework (Acquaye and Duffy, 2010; Mattila et al., 2010; Wiedmann et al., 2011). As a result, the whole lifecycle perspective, which is a key principle of green supply chain management (Sundarakani et al., 2010; Carter and Easton, 2011), can be adopted based on the generalised ideas surrounding Multi-Regional Input–Output (MRIO) analysis (Wiedmann, 2009). "
ABSTRACT: In recent years, increased concerns over pollution and greenhouse gas emissions have initiated a wave of policy change in both governmental, industry and non-governmental organisations in order to reduce the overall environmental impact and ensure a sustainable future. The UK Green Building Council for instance has identified construction as one of the most emission-intensive industries, accounting for around 50% of greenhouse gas production in UK. In this study, a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) technique is used to analyse the plasterboard supply chain; the most commonly used product in the UK construction industry of one of the Europe's leading distributor and contractor of building materials. This study demonstrates how emission ‘hotspots’ across the lifecycle of products can be identified and analysed using different intervention options in the supply chain in an attempt to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For the plasterboard supply chain, the implementation of cross-docking principles and use of renewable sources of energy in warehousing were determined to be major decarbonzation interventions.International Journal of Production Economics 12/2014; 164. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.12.012 · 2.08 Impact Factor