Association of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Infection and Increased Hospitalization With Parapneumonic Empyema in Children in Utah

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 2.72). 10/2010; 29(10):905-9. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181df2c70
Source: PubMed


During previous influenza pandemics, many deaths were associated with secondary bacterial infection. In April 2009, a previously unknown 2009 influenza A virus (2009 H1N1) emerged, causing a global influenza pandemic. We examined the relationship between circulating 2009 H1N1 and the occurrence of secondary bacterial parapneumonic empyema in children.
Children hospitalized with parapneumonic empyema from August 2004 to July 2009, including a period when the 2009 H1N1 circulated in Utah, were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. We compared the average number of children diagnosed with influenza A and the number of admissions for empyema per month for the previous 4 seasons to rates of empyema during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. We identified causative bacteria using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
We observed an increase in hospitalization of children with pneumonia complicated by empyema during a severe outbreak of 2009 H1N1 during the spring and summer of 2009, compared with historical data for the previous 4 seasons. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were the predominant bacteria identified.
Similar to previous pandemics, secondary bacterial infection with S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes were associated with the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. There is an urgent need to better understand bacterial complications of pandemic influenza. In the interim, influenza vaccines, antiviral agents, and pneumococcal vaccines should be used to prevent cases of secondary bacterial pneumonia whenever possible.

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Available from: Judy A Daly, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "The most important RTI with respect to healthcare burden is pneumonia which is associated with hospitalisation and poorer outcomes. The incidence of pneumonia is high in children admitted to hospital with more severe influenza; in 2,992 hospitalised children and adolescents with seasonal influenza, radiographic evidence of pneumonia was found in 1,072 (36 %) [30], and recently published studies in European and Asian children suggest a similar rate in hospitalised children with H1N1pdm09 influenza, with estimates ranging from 22 to 43 % [11, 69, 91, 111], although two groups found the rate to be higher for H1N1pdm09 infections during 2009 than for influenza A infections in previous seasons [5, 78]. Pneumonia is less common outside the hospital setting: in the Finnish prospective cohort study in outpatients mentioned above, pneumonia was diagnosed in 9 of 370 (2.4 %) children with confirmed influenza, 8 of whom were aged ≤6 years [51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: The burden of influenza is unevenly distributed, with more severe outcomes in children aged <5 years than older children and adults. In spite of this, immunisation policies for young children are far from universal. This article provides an overview of the published evidence on the burden of influenza in children worldwide, with a particular interest in the impact of pandemic influenza in 2009-2010 (caused by the H1N1pdm09 virus). In an average season, up to 9.8 % of 0- to 14-year olds present with influenza, but incidence rates can be markedly higher in younger children. Children aged <5 years have greater rates of hospitalisation and complications than their older counterparts, particularly if the children have co-existing illnesses; historically, this age group have had higher mortality rates from the disease than other children, although during the 2009-2010 pandemic the median age of those who died of influenza was higher than in previous seasons. Admissions to hospital and emergency departments appear to have been more frequent in children with H1N1pdm09 infections than during previous seasonal epidemics, with pneumonia continuing to be a common complication in this setting. Outcomes in children hospitalised with severe disease also seem to have been worse for those infected with H1N1pdm09 viruses compared with seasonal viruses. Studies in children confirm that vaccination reduces the incidence of seasonal influenza and the associated burden, underlining the importance of targeting this group in national immunisation policies. Conclusions: Children aged <5 years are especially vulnerable to influenza, particularly that caused by seasonal viruses, and vaccination in this group can be an effective strategy for reducing disease burden.
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  • The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 10/2010; 29(10):987. DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e3181e50e10 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parapneumonic empyema (PPE) is an increasingly common complication of bacterial pneumonia. Epidemiologic study is complicated by the low frequency of positive cultures. We sought to describe the epidemiology of PPE in children using molecular analysis of pleural fluid. We performed molecular testing for bacterial pathogens using archived pleural fluid from children hospitalized in 2009 with PPE. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant), Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae as well as PCR-based serotyping of S. pneumoniae was performed. Demographic, laboratory, and microbiologic data were abstracted. Pleural fluid specimens from 63 children were available for PCR. By culture, a pathogen was isolated from blood and/or pleural fluid in 22 (35%) patients, with S. pneumoniae in 15 (24%), S. pyogenes in 3 (5%), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 4 (6%). By PCR, a pathogen was detected in 53 (84%), including S. pneumoniae in 45 (71%). Compared with culture, PCR testing significantly increased detection of any pathogen (35% vs. 84%; P < 0.001) and of S. pneumoniae (24% vs. 71%; P < 0.001). Serotype 7F was the most common pneumococcal serotype detected. Comparison of culture-negative to culture-positive disease showed differences in both the pathogen profile and clinical outcomes. Molecular analysis of pleural fluid more than doubled the detection of pathogens causing PPE. S. pneumoniae was the most common cause of both culture-positive and culture-negative PPE, although serotype distribution and outcomes differed.
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