The development and psychometric evaluation of a safety climate measure for primary care.

National Health Service Education for Scotland, Glasgow, UK.
Quality and Safety in Health Care (Impact Factor: 2.16). 12/2010; 19(6):578-84. DOI: 10.1136/qshc.2008.031062
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Building a safety culture is an important part of improving patient care. Measuring perceptions of safety climate among healthcare teams and organisations is a key element of this process. Existing measurement instruments are largely developed for secondary care settings in North America and many lack adequate psychometric testing. Our aim was to develop and test an instrument to measure perceptions of safety climate among primary care teams in National Health Service for Scotland.
Questionnaire development was facilitated through a steering group, literature review, semistructured interviews with primary care team members, a modified Delphi and completion of a content validity index by experts. A cross-sectional postal survey utilising the questionnaire was undertaken in a random sample of west of Scotland general practices to facilitate psychometric evaluation. Statistical methods, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and Cronbach and Raykov reliability coefficients were conducted.
Of the 667 primary care team members based in 49 general practices surveyed, 563 returned completed questionnaires (84.4%). Psychometric evaluation resulted in the development of a 30-item questionnaire with five safety climate factors: leadership, teamwork, communication, workload and safety systems. Retained items have strong factor loadings to only one factor. Reliability coefficients was satisfactory (α = 0.94 and ρ = 0.93).
This study is the first stage in the development of an appropriately valid and reliable safety climate measure for primary care. Measuring safety climate perceptions has the potential to help primary care organisations and teams focus attention on safety-related issues and target improvement through educational interventions. Further research is required to explore acceptability and feasibility issues for primary care teams and the potential for organisational benchmarking.

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    ABSTRACT: Rationale, aims and objectivesA positive and strong safety culture underpins effective learning from patient safety incidents in health care, including the community pharmacy (CP) setting. To build this culture, perceptions of safety climate must be measured with context-specific and reliable instruments. No pre-existing instruments were specifically designed or suitable for CP within Scotland. We therefore aimed to develop a psychometrically sound instrument to measure perceptions of safety climate within Scottish CPs.Methods The first stage, development of a preliminary instrument, comprised three steps: (i) a literature review; (ii) focus group feedback; and (iii) content validation. The second stage, psychometric testing, consisted of three further steps: (iv) a pilot survey; (v) a survey of all CP staff within a single health board in NHS Scotland; and (vi) application of statistical methods, including principal components analysis and calculation of Cronbach's reliability coefficients, to derive the final instrument.ResultsThe preliminary questionnaire was developed through a process of literature review and feedback. This questionnaire was completed by staff in 50 CPs from the 131 (38%) sampled. 250 completed questionnaires were suitable for analysis. Psychometric evaluation resulted in a 30-item instrument with five positively correlated safety climate factors: leadership, teamwork, safety systems, communication and working conditions. Reliability coefficients were satisfactory for the safety climate factors (α > 0.7) and overall (α = 0.93).Conclusions The robust nature of the technical design and testing process has resulted in the development of an instrument with sufficient psychometric properties, which can be implemented in the community pharmacy setting in NHS Scotland.
    Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11/2014; 20(6). DOI:10.1111/jep.12273 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: So far, there has been a lack of systematic data regarding critical incidents and safety climate in Swiss primary care offices. Therefore, a survey was conducted amongst physicians and nurses ("MPA") working in Swiss German primary care offices leading to a subsequent project on the telephone triage. Using a standardised questionnaire, healthcare professionals in primary care offices have been surveyed to determine safety risks and safety climate in their offices. The questionnaire consisted of safety-climate items as well as descriptions of 23 safety incidents. These incidents were rated in terms of frequency (appearance in the office during the past 12 months) and severity (harm associated with the last occurrence in the office). In addition, physicians and nurses answered an open-ended question referring to patient safety risks they would wish to eliminate in their offices. In the subsequent project, interviews and group discussions have been conducted with physicians and nurses in order to perform a process analysis of the telephone triage and to develop a tool that may help primary care offices to strengthen telephone triage as a secure process. 630 physicians and nurses (50.2 % physicians, 49.8 % nurses) participated in the study. 30 % of the physicians and 17 % of the nurses observed at least one of the 23 incidents in their offices on a daily or weekly basis. Errors in documentation were reported most frequently. As regards severity, the triage by nurses at the initial patient contact, errors in diagnosis, failure to monitor patients after therapeutic treatment in the office, and errors regarding the medication process were shown to be the most relevant. Most frequently participants wanted to eliminate the following risks to patient safety in their offices: medication (28 % of all mentions), medical procedures in the office (11 %) and telephone triage (7 %). Participation in team meetings and quality circles proved to be relevant predictors of the safety climate dimension "team-based error prevention". Differences between occupational groups were found regarding safety incidents as well as safety climate. The results of this study show the telephone triage to be a relevant area of patient safety in primary care that has not been focused on so far. In order to enhance safety of the triage process a new project was initiated. The result of the project is a triage guide for primary care offices. This guide supports physicians and nurses in a joint and critical examination of office structures and processes related to telephone triage. The systematically observed differences between occupational groups indicate that the entire office team need to be involved when analysing safety risks and taking action to improve patient safety. Only in doing so, risks can be identified comprehensively. Moreover, measures can be taken that are relevant to and supported by all healthcare professionals working in a primary care office. This approach of involving the entire team forms the basis for the guide on telephone triage.
    01/2014; 108(1):25-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To identify elements that are integral to high-quality practice and determine considerations relating to high-quality practice organisation in primary care. Study design: A narrative systematic review of published and grey literature. Data sources: Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Emerald Insight, PsycInfo, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service website, Google Scholar) were searched in November 2013 and used to identify articles published in English from 2002 to 2013. Reference lists of included articles were searched for relevant unpublished articles and reports. Data synthesis: Data were configured at the study level to allow for the inclusion of findings from a broad range of study types. Ten elements were most often included in the existing organisational assessment tools. A further three elements were identified from an inductive thematic analysis of descriptive articles, and were noted as important considerations in effective quality improvement in primary care settings. Conclusion: Although there are some validated tools available to primary care that identify and build quality, most are single-strategy approaches developed outside health care settings. There are currently no validated organisational improvement tools, designed specifically for primary health care, which combine all elements of practice improvement and whose use does not require extensive external facilitation.
    The Medical journal of Australia 07/2014; 201(3):S47-51. DOI:10.5694/mja14.00305 · 3.79 Impact Factor


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