Rehydrated lyophilized rifampicin-loaded mPEG-DSPE formulations for nebulization.
ABSTRACT Rifampicin-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using two different molecular weights of poly-(ethylene oxide)-block-distearoyl phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (mPEG2000-DSPE and mPEG5000-DSPE) polymers. Particle sizes of all formulations studied were in the range of 162-395 nm. The entrapment efficiency (EE) was not affected by the copolymer's molecular weight, and the highest EE (100%) was obtained with drug to copolymer ratio of 1:5. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms showed Tg of rifampicin-loaded PEG-DSPE nanoparticles that shifted to a lower value, indicating entrapment of rifampicin in polymer matrix. The Fourier transformed infrared spectra revealed no chemical interactions between the drug and both copolymers. The in vitro drug release from the formulations occurred over 3 days and followed first-order release kinetic and Higuchi diffusion model. The nebulization of rehydrated lyophilized rifampicin mPEG-DSPE formulations had mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2.6 microm and fine particle fraction of 42%. The aerodynamic characteristic of the preparations was not influenced by the molecular weight of the copolymers. Therefore, it is suggested that both mPEG-DSPE are promising candidates as rifampicin carrier for pulmonary delivery.
Article: Chitosan-Grafted Copolymers and Chitosan-Ligand Conjugates as Matrices for Pulmonary Drug Delivery[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently, much attention has been given to pulmonary drug delivery by means of nanosized systems to treat both local and systemic diseases. Among the different materials used for the production of nanocarriers, chitosan enjoys high popularity due to its inherent characteristics such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mucoadhesion, among others. Through the modification of chitosan chemical structure, either by the addition of new chemical groups or by the functionalization with ligands, it is possible to obtain derivatives with advantageous and specific characteristics for pulmonary administration. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of using chitosan for nanotechnology-based pulmonary delivery of drugs and summarize the most recent and promising modifications performed to the chitosan molecule in order to improve its characteristics.Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry Article ID. 01/2011; 865704(14).
Article: Rehydrated sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles of budesonide for nebulization: physicochemical characterization and in vitro, in vivo evaluations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inhaled corticosteroids provide unique systems for local treatment of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the use of poorly soluble drugs for nebulization has been inadequate, and many patients rely on large doses to achieve optimal control of their disease. Theoretically, nanotechnology with a sustained-release formulation may provide a favorable therapeutic index. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles of budesonide for pulmonary delivery via nebulization. PEG(5000)-DSPE polymeric micelles containing budesonide (BUD-SSMs) were prepared by the coprecipitation and reconstitution method, and the physicochemical and pharmacodynamic characteristics of BUD-SSMs were investigated. The optimal concentration of solubilized budesonide at 5 mM PEG(5000)-DSPE was 605.71 ± 6.38 μg/mL, with a single-sized peak population determined by photon correlation spectroscopy and a particle size distribution of 21.51 ± 1.5 nm. The zeta potential of BUD-SSMs was -28.43 ± 1.98 mV. The percent entrapment efficiency, percent yield, and percent drug loading of the lyophilized formulations were 100.13% ± 1.09%, 97.98% ± 1.95%, and 2.01% ± 0.02%, respectively. Budesonide was found to be amorphous by differential scanning calorimetry, and had no chemical interaction with PEGylated polymer according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopic images of BUD-SSMs revealed spherical nanoparticles. BUD-SSMs exhibited prolonged dissolution behavior compared with Pulmicort Respules (P < 0.05). Aerodynamic characteristics indicated significantly higher deposition in the lungs compared with Pulmicort Respules. The mass median aerodynamic, geometric standard deviation, percent emitted dose, and the fine particle fraction were 2.83 ± 0.08 μm, 2.33 ± 0.04 μm, 59.13% ± 0.19%, and 52.31% ± 0.25%, respectively. Intratracheal administration of BUD-SSMs 23 hours before challenge (1 mg/kg) in an asthmatic/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rat model led to a significant reduction in inflammatory cell counts (76.94 ± 5.11) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with administration of Pulmicort Respules (25.06 ± 6.91). The BUD-SSMs system might be advantageous for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other inflammatory airway diseases.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2011; 6:2351-66. · 3.13 Impact Factor
Article: Solubilization of beclomethasone dipropionate in sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles (SSMs): physicochemical and in vitro evaluations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The local treatment of lung disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via pulmonary drug delivery offers many advantages over oral or intravenous routes of administration. This is because direct deposition of a drug at the diseased site increases local drug concentrations, which improves the pulmonary receptor occupancy and reduces the overall dose required, therefore reducing the side effects that result from high drug doses. From a clinical point of view, although jet nebulizers have been used for aerosol delivery of water-soluble compounds and micronized suspensions, their use with hydrophobic drugs has been inadequate. To evaluate the feasibility of sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles (SSMs) loaded with beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as a carrier for pulmonary delivery. 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol 5000) polymeric micelles containing BDP (BDP-SSMs) were prepared by the coprecipitation and reconstitution method, and the physicochemical and in vitro characteristics of BDP-SSMs were investigated. BDP-SSMs were successfully prepared with a content uniformity and reproducibility suitable for pulmonary administration. The maximum solubility of BDP in SSMs was approximately 1300 times its actual solubility. The particle size and zeta potential of BDP-SSMs were 19.89 ± 0.67 nm and -28.03 ± 2.05 mV, respectively. The SSMs system slowed down the release of BDP and all of the aerodynamic values of the aerosolized rehydrated BDP-SSMs were not only acceptable but indicated a significant level of deposition in the lungs. The SSM system might be an effective way of improving the therapeutic index of nebulized, poorly soluble corticosteroids.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2012; 6:29-42. · 2.88 Impact Factor