Overexpression of alpha-synuclein down-regulates BDNF expression.
ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, the molecular pathways leading to the dopaminergic neuron degeneration have remained obscure until recently. Reports demonstrated that reduction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of PD, but its mechanism has not been elucidated. alpha-Synuclein has a causal role in Parkinson's disease, and could interfere with transcriptional regulation of dopamine neurons. In this study, alpha-synuclein overexpression was found to decrease the expression of BDNF, and also to suppress the transactivation of nuclear factors of activated T-cells (NFAT) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), both of which regulate BDNF expression. Furthermore, overexpressed alpha-synuclein could associate with protein kinase C (PKC) and impair its activity. Meanwhile glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) was activated and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activity was inhibited by overexpression of alpha-synuclein; both of them were downstream kinases of PKC. Therefore, the impaired PKC signal pathway caused by alpha-synuclein overexpression might account at least partially for the down-regulation of BDNF.
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ABSTRACT: Differential expression of microRNAs (miRs) in the brain of patients with neurodegenerative diseases suggests that they may have key regulatory roles in the development of these disorders. Two such miRs, miR-7, and miR-153 have recently been shown to target α-synuclein, a protein critically involved in the pathological process of Parkinson's disease. By using a well-established in culture Parkinson's disease model that of neurotoxin 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-Pyridinium (MPP(+)), we examined whether miR-7 and miR-153 display neuroprotective properties. Herein, we demonstrate that treatment of cortical neurons with MPP(+) induced a dose-dependent cell death with apoptotic characteristics. This was reflected in altered intracellular signaling characterized by increased levels of activated kinases p38MAPK and ERK1/2 and reduced levels of activated AKT, p70S6K, and SAPK/JNK. Overexpression of miR-7 or miR-153 by adenoviral transduction protected cortical neurons from MPP(+)-induced toxicity, restored neuronal viability and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein levels while attenuated activation of caspase-3. Moreover, both miR-7 and miR-153 interfered with MPP(+)-induced alterations in intracellular signaling pathways in a partially overlapping manner; specifically, they preserved activation of mTOR and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways in the MPP(+)-treated neurons, while miR-153 also attenuated MPP(+)-induced activation of p38MAPK. No major effects were observed in the rest of signaling cascades or proteins investigated. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effect of miR-7 and miR-153 was alleviated when MPP(+) was co-administered with rapamycin. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-7 and miR-153 protect neurons from cell death by interfering with the MPP(+)-induced downregulation of mTOR signaling.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 07/2014; 8:182. · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Telmisartan (TEL), an angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effect in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its effect on motor functions, mutant protein α-synuclein (SYN) and neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF) expression and their interrelation in PD has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the effect of TEL on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced motor dysfunctions and dopaminergic degeneration was ascertained through investigating the alterations in protein expression of dopamine transporter (DAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and SYN in C57BL/6J mouse. Further, the role of TEL on the gene expression of neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and GDNF and protein expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and Glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAP) were studied. In TEL treated mouse, strong negative correlation was observed between motor function and SYN, while a strong positive correlation was noted with BDNF and GDNF expression. TEL caused down-regulation of SYN, GFAP and up-regulation of DAT, TH, VAMT2, BDNF and GDNF expressions. Present data suggest that brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in motor function and in the regulation of key proteins such as SYN, BDNF and GDNF, DAT, TH, VMAT2 and GFAP in Parkinsonism. In conclusion, the present study shows that angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists can ameliorate motor dysfunction and act as potential neuroprotective agent in the management of Parkinsonism.Neuropharmacology 06/2013; · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRs) are endogenous small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by mediating mRNA degradation or transcriptional inhibition. MiRs were implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study we analyzed the possible role of miRs in the neurodegenerative process in a spontaneous autosomal recessive rat model for neurodegeneration developed in our laboratory. To investigate the role of miRs in the etiology of PD, we conducted miR expression profiling using microarrays. We found 20 miRs that are deregulated in affected rats and many of these are implicated in neurodegenerative disease, including PD. In this study we were particularly interested in the expression of miR-132, a miR that has been reported to be highly expressed in neurons, and to have a potential role in neurodegenerative diseases. We found a significant increase in miR-132 in affected rats by microarray and the result was confirmed by qPCR. Next we analyzed one of the known downstream targets of miR-132, nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1), which is essential in neurogenesis of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in Nurr1 protein expression in the mesencephalic neurons. Finally, we found a significant decrease in both serum and mesencephalon brain tissue of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is known to be a direct target of Nurr1. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-132 can regulate Nurr1 levels and might influence the development and function of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.Neuroscience Letters 08/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor