Overexpression of alpha-synuclein down-regulates BDNF expression.
ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, the molecular pathways leading to the dopaminergic neuron degeneration have remained obscure until recently. Reports demonstrated that reduction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of PD, but its mechanism has not been elucidated. alpha-Synuclein has a causal role in Parkinson's disease, and could interfere with transcriptional regulation of dopamine neurons. In this study, alpha-synuclein overexpression was found to decrease the expression of BDNF, and also to suppress the transactivation of nuclear factors of activated T-cells (NFAT) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), both of which regulate BDNF expression. Furthermore, overexpressed alpha-synuclein could associate with protein kinase C (PKC) and impair its activity. Meanwhile glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) was activated and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activity was inhibited by overexpression of alpha-synuclein; both of them were downstream kinases of PKC. Therefore, the impaired PKC signal pathway caused by alpha-synuclein overexpression might account at least partially for the down-regulation of BDNF.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: α-Synuclein is a pre-synaptic chaperone and its accumulation contributes to differential cell loss in Parkinson's disease. Cytoplasmic expression of α-synuclein can directly modulate apoptotic pathways and contribute to cell survival, whereas induced over-expression of the protein causes oxidative stress through mitochondrial and cytosolic free-radical production. This study aimed to clarify the contribution of endogenous α-synuclein to oxidative stress and its association with cell death. Primary cortical neurons were derived from α-synuclein knock-out (Snca-/-) and wild-type (C57BL/6; WT) mice and treated with in vitro models of oxidative-stress, complex I inhibition and excitotoxicity. Mitochondrial free radical production was determined in isolated mitochondria derived from each mouse strain. Snca-/- derived cortical cultures were more susceptible (P < 0.05) to oxidative-stress, but not excitotoxicity. This result was determined by significant increases in cell death (Propidium-Iodide staining) after 6 h treatment in Snca-/- (45 % ± 2.7 SEM), relative to WT (33 % ± 3.9 SEM) cultures. α-Synuclein also confers significant (P < 0.05) resistance to low-dose (5 nM) rotenone toxicity, with a twofold reduction in cell death in WT, compared with Snca-/- cortical neurons. The expression of α-synuclein had no effect on cortical glutathione levels, or the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in isolated mitochondria. These data indicate that endogenous levels of α-synuclein confer resistance to oxidative stress downstream of free radical production and scavenging. The current data suggest that α-synuclein prevents cytochrome c release and apoptosis through inhibition of the MAPK signalling pathway.Neurotoxicity Research 08/2012; · 2.87 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Telmisartan (TEL), an angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effect in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its effect on motor functions, mutant protein α-synuclein (SYN) and neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF) expression and their interrelation in PD has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the effect of TEL on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced motor dysfunctions and dopaminergic degeneration was ascertained through investigating the alterations in protein expression of dopamine transporter (DAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and SYN in C57BL/6J mouse. Further, the role of TEL on the gene expression of neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and GDNF and protein expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and Glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAP) were studied. In TEL treated mouse, strong negative correlation was observed between motor function and SYN, while a strong positive correlation was noted with BDNF and GDNF expression. TEL caused down-regulation of SYN, GFAP and up-regulation of DAT, TH, VAMT2, BDNF and GDNF expressions. Present data suggest that brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in motor function and in the regulation of key proteins such as SYN, BDNF and GDNF, DAT, TH, VMAT2 and GFAP in Parkinsonism. In conclusion, the present study shows that angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists can ameliorate motor dysfunction and act as potential neuroprotective agent in the management of Parkinsonism.Neuropharmacology 06/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRs) are endogenous small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by mediating mRNA degradation or transcriptional inhibition. MiRs were implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study we analyzed the possible role of miRs in the neurodegenerative process in a spontaneous autosomal recessive rat model for neurodegeneration developed in our laboratory. To investigate the role of miRs in the etiology of PD, we conducted miR expression profiling using microarrays. We found 20 miRs that are deregulated in affected rats and many of these are implicated in neurodegenerative disease, including PD. In this study we were particularly interested in the expression of miR-132, a miR that has been reported to be highly expressed in neurons, and to have a potential role in neurodegenerative diseases. We found a significant increase in miR-132 in affected rats by microarray and the result was confirmed by qPCR. Next we analyzed one of the known downstream targets of miR-132, nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1), which is essential in neurogenesis of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in Nurr1 protein expression in the mesencephalic neurons. Finally, we found a significant decrease in both serum and mesencephalon brain tissue of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is known to be a direct target of Nurr1. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-132 can regulate Nurr1 levels and might influence the development and function of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.Neuroscience Letters 08/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor