Imprinting in the schizophrenia candidate gene GABRB2 encoding GABA(A) receptor β(2) subunit.
ABSTRACT Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder, the inheritance pattern of which is likely complicated by epigenetic factors yet to be elucidated. In this study, transmission disequilibrium tests with family trios yielded significant differences between paternal and maternal transmissions of the disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6556547 and its haplotypes. The minor allele (T) of rs6556547 was paternally undertransmitted to male schizophrenic offsprings, and this parent-of-origin effect strongly suggested that GABRB2 is imprinted. 'Flipping' of allelic expression in heterozygotes of SNP rs2229944 (C/T) in GABRB2 or rs2290732 (G/A) in the neighboring GABRA1 was compatible with imprinting effects on gene expression. Clustering analysis of GABRB2 mRNA expressions suggested that imprinting brought about the observed two-tiered distribution of expression levels in controls with heterozygous genotype at the disease-associated SNP rs1816071 (A/G). The deficit of upper-tiered expressions accounted for the lowered expression levels in the schizophrenic heterozygotes. The occurrence of a two-tiered distribution furnished support for imprinting, and also pointed to the necessity of differentiating between two kinds of heterozygotes of different parental origins in disease association studies on GABRB2. Bisulfite sequencing revealed hypermethylation in the neighborhood of SNP rs1816071, and methylation differences between controls and schizophrenia patients. Notably, the two schizophrenia-associated SNPs rs6556547 and rs1816071 overlapped with a CpG dinucleotide, thereby opening the possibility that CpG methylation status of these sites could have an impact on the risk of schizophrenia. Thus multiple lines of evidence pointed to the occurrence of imprinting in the GABRB2 gene and its possible role in the development of schizophrenia.
SourceAvailable from: Daizhan Zhou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metastatic lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death. In recent years, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been found to contribute to metastasis, as it enables migratory and invasive properties in cancer cells. Previous genome-wide studies found that DNA methylation was unchanged during EMT induced by TGF-beta in AML12 cells. In this study, we aimed to discover EMT-related changes in DNA methylation in cancer cells, which are poorly understood. We employed a next-generation sequencing-based method, MSCC (methyl-sensitive cut counting), to investigate DNA methylation during EMT in the A549 lung cancer cell line. We found that methylation levels were highly correlated to gene expression, histone modifications and small RNA expression. However, no differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were found in A549 cells treated with TGF-beta for 4 h, 12 h, 24 h and 96 h. Additionally, CpG islands (CGIs) showed no overall change in methylation levels, and at the single-base level, almost all of the CpGs showed conservation of DNA methylation levels. Furthermore, we found that the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, 3a, 3b (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b) and ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) was altered after EMT. The level of several histone methylations was also changed. DNA methylation-related enzymes and histone methylation might have a role in TGF-beta-induced EMT without affecting the whole DNA methylome in cancer cells. Our data provide new insights into the global methylation signature of lung cancer cells and the role of DNA methylation in EMT.Virtual slides: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1112892497119603.Diagnostic Pathology 03/2014; 9(1):66. DOI:10.1186/1746-1596-9-66 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked incompletely dominant enzyme deficiency that results from G6PD gene mutations. Women heterozygous for G6PD mutations exhibit variation in the loss of enzyme activity but the cause of this phenotypic variation is unclear. We determined DNA methylation and X-inactivation patterns in 71 G6PD-deficient female heterozygotes and 68 G6PD non-deficient controls with the same missense mutations (G6PD Canton c.1376G>T or Kaiping c.1388G>A) to correlate determinants with variable phenotypes. Specific CpG methylations within the G6PD promoter were significantly higher in G6PD-deficient heterozygotes than in controls. Preferential X-inactivation of the G6PD wild-type allele was determined in heterozygotes. The incidence of preferential X-inactivation was 86.2% in the deficient heterozygote group and 31.7% in the non-deficient heterozygote group. A significant negative correlation was observed between X-inactivation ratios of the wild-type allele and G6PD/6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) ratios in heterozygous G6PD Canton (r=-0.657, p<0.001) or Kaiping (r=-0.668, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that heterozygotes with hypermethylation of specific CpG sites in the G6PD promoter and preferential X-inactivation of the wild-type allele were at risk of enzyme deficiency.Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases 06/2014; 53(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bcmd.2014.06.001 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA methylation has been viewed as the most highly characterized epigenetic mark for genome regulation and development. Postnatal brains appear to exhibit stimulus-induced methylation changes because of factors such as environment, lifestyle, and diet (nutrition). The purpose of this study was to examine how extensively the brain DNA methylome is regulated by nutrition in early life. By quantifying the total amount of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the thalamus and the hippocampus of postnatal malnourished mice and normal mice, we found the two regions showed differences in global DNA methylation status. The methylation level in the thalamus was much higher than that in the hippocampus. Then, we used a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based method (MSCC) to detect the whole genome methylation of the two regions in malnourished mice and normal mice. Notably, we found that in the thalamus, 500 discriminable variations existed and that approximately 60% were related to neuronal development or psychiatric diseases. Pathway analyses of the corresponding genes highlighted changes for 9 genes related to long-term potentiation (5.3-fold enrichment, P = 0.033). Our findings may help to indicate the genome-wide DNA methylation status of different brain regions and the effects of malnutrition on brain DNA methylation. The results also indicate that postnatal malnutrition may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders.BMC Neuroscience 02/2014; 15(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1471-2202-15-31 · 2.85 Impact Factor