Risk factors for anastomotic leak following colorectal surgery: A case-control study

The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA.
Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) (Impact Factor: 4.93). 04/2010; 145(4):371-6; discussion 376. DOI: 10.1001/archsurg.2010.40
Source: PubMed


To assess anastomotic leak (AL) risk factors in a large patient series.
Case-control study.
The Mount Sinai Hospital.
Ninety patients with AL following colorectal resection and 180 patients who underwent uncomplicated procedures.
Risk factors associated with development of AL.
The AL rate was 2.6%. Five risk factors for AL were identified: (1) preoperative albumin level lower than 3.5 g/dL (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.1) (P = .03); (2) operative time of 200 minutes or longer (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0-5.8) (P = .01); (3) intraoperative blood loss of 200 mL or more (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.9-5.3) (P = .01); (4) intraoperative transfusion requirement (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5) (P = .02); and (5) histologic specimen margin involvement in disease process in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-6.1) (P = .01). Patients with all 3 intraoperative risk factors had an OR of 22.1; 95% CI, 2.8-175.4 (P < .001) for development of AL.
Histologic resection margin involvement in disease process in patients with IBD, preoperative albumin levels lower than 3.5 g/dL, intraoperative blood loss of 200 mL or more, operative time of 200 minutes or more, and/or intraoperative transfusion requirement increased AL risk. Enteral nutritional optimization prior to elective surgery is essential. Proximal diversion should be considered for patients with all 3 intraoperative risk factors because they are at high risk for AL.

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    • "Hypoalbuminemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, colon cancer and IBD have been identified as significant risk factors for anastomotic leakage [1], [3], [4], [6]. However, wide resection margins, absence of tension at the level of the suture site and resection along anatomic blood supply may decrease the risk [1], [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Failure of intestinal anastomosis is a major complication following abdominal surgery. Biological materials have been introduced as reinforcement of abdominal wall hernia in contaminated setting. An innovative application of biological patch is its use as reinforcement of gastrointestinal anastomosis. The aim of study was to verify whether the bovine pericardium patch improves the healing of anastomosis, when in vivo wrapping the suture line of pig intestinal anastomosis, avoiding leakage in the event of deliberately incomplete suture. Forty-three pigs were randomly divided: Group 1 (control, n = 14): hand-sewn ileo-ileal and colo-colic anastomosis; Group 2 (n = 14): standard anastomosis wrapped by pericardium bovine patch; Group 3 (n = 1) and 4 (n = 14): one suture was deliberately incomplete and also wrapped by patch in the last one. Intraoperative evaluation, histological, biochemical, tensiometric and electrophysiological studies of intestinal specimens were performed at 48 h, 7 and 90 days after. In groups 2 and 4, no leak, stenosis, abscess, peritonitis, mesh displacement or shrinkage were found and adhesion rate decreased compared to control. Biochemical studies showed mitochondrial function improvement in colic wrapped anastomosis. Tensiometric evaluations suggested that the patch preserves the colic contractility similar to the controls. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that the patch also improves the mucosal function restoring almost normal transport properties. Use of pericardium bovine patch as reinforcement of intestinal anastomosis is safe and effective, significantly improving the healing process. Data of prevention of acute peritonitis and leakage in cases of iatrogenic perforation of anastomoses, covered with patch, is unpublished.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86627. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086627 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Despite extensive investigation, disruption of gastrointestinal anastomoses leading to leak and sepsis remains as a significant cause of surgical morbidity, with an overall incidence between 2% and 10% [1] [2] and >20% in certain high-risk situations such as ileorectal anastomosis after total colectomy [1]. Local factors such as blood supply, presence of infection, immune status of the patient, and physical tension at the anastomosis have all been invoked as contributory elements. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is a growing recognition of the significance of host-pathogen interactions (HPIs) in gut biology leading to a reassessment of the role of bacteria in intestinal anastomotic leak. Understanding the complexities of the early postsurgical gut HPI requires integrating knowledge of both epithelial and bacterial behaviors to generate hypotheses of potential mechanisms of interaction. Agent-based modeling is a computational method well suited to achieve this goal, and we use an agent-based model (ABM) to examine alterations in the HPI affecting reestablishment of the epithelial barrier that may subsequently lead to anastomotic leak. Methods: Computational agents representing Pseudomonas aeruginosa were added to a previously validated ABM of epithelial restitution. Simulated experiments were performed examining the effect of radiation on bacterial binding to epithelial cells, plausibility of putative binding targets, and potential mechanisms of epithelial cell killing by virulent bacteria. Results: Simulation experiments incorporating radiation effects on epithelial monolayers produced binding patterns akin to those seen in vitro and suggested that promotility integrin-laminin associations represent potential sites for bacterial binding and disruption of restitution. Simulations of potential mechanisms of epithelial cell killing suggested that an injected cytotoxin was the means by which virulent bacteria produced the tissue destruction needed to generate an anastomotic leak, a mechanism subsequently confirmed with genotyping of the virulent P aeruginosa strain. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the utility of ABM as an adjunct to traditional research methods and provides insights into the potentially critical role of HPI in the pathogenesis of anastomotic leak.
    Journal of Surgical Research 10/2013; 184(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2012.12.009 · 1.94 Impact Factor
    • "The present study identifies the potential non-surgical risk factors associated with anastomotic leakage after major abdominal surgery. Although many studies are available in the literature[345] on the role of surgical factors causing anastomotic leakage, very few studies have identified the role of non-surgical factors which are independently associated with increased risk of anastomotic leakage. The most important pathophysiological basis for anastomotic leakage is believed to be ischemia of the gut conduit. "
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    ABSTRACT: The occurence of anastomotic leakage after gastointestinal resection and anastomosis is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. There is dearth of evidence in the literature on the influence of various non-surgical factors in causing anastomotic leakage although many studies have identified their possible role. A retrospective audit of all the anastomotic leakages occurring between September 2009 and April 2012 in our institute was performed to identify the potential non-surgical factors that can influence anastomotic leakage. A total of 137 out of 1246 patients who developed anastmotic leak were analyzed. All the potential non-surgical causes of anastomotic leakage available in the literature were analyzed by univariate analysis and stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis was done after adjusting for the type of surgery. An intergroup comparison among the patients based on the type of surgery was also performed. THE FOLLOWING FACTORS WERE FOUND TO BE INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK OF ANASTOMOTIC LEAK: (1) albumin <3.5 g/dl, (2) anemia <8 g/dl, (3) hypotension (4) use of inotropes, and (5) blood transfusion. The majority of anastomotic leaks occurred after pancreatic surgeries followed by esophagectomies and occurred least after colonic resections. The risk for anastomotic leak was four times more in patients who required inotropic support in the perioperative period and three times more in patients who developed hypotension. Our study is the first retrospective audit to identify the influence of non-surgical factors for anastomotic leakage and the need for further observational studies in this direction.
    10/2013; 3(4):246-9. DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.124117
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