Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug Dogs associates with dog leukocyte antigen class II and resembles acute variant forms of multiple sclerosis
ABSTRACT Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) is a disorder of Pug Dogs that appears to have an immune etiology and high heritability based on population studies. The present study was undertaken to identify a genetic basis for the disease. A genome-wide association scan with single tandem repeat (STR) markers showed a single strong association near the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) complex on CFA12. Fine resolution mapping with 27 STR markers on CFA12 further narrowed association to the region containing DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and, -DQB1 genes. Sequencing confirmed that affected dogs were more likely to be homozygous for specific alleles at each locus and that these alleles were linked, forming a single high risk haplotype. The strong DLA class II association of NME in Pug Dogs resembles that of human multiple sclerosis (MS). Like MS, NME appears to have an autoimmune basis, involves genetic and nongenetic factors, has a relatively low incidence, is more frequent in females than males, and is associated with a vascularly orientated nonsuppurative inflammation. However, NME of Pug Dogs is more aggressive in disease course than classical human MS, appears to be relatively earlier in onset, and involves necrosis rather than demyelination as the central pathobiologic feature. Thus, Pug Dog encephalitis (PDE) shares clinical features with the less common acute variant forms of MS. Accordingly, NME of Pug Dogs may represent a naturally occurring canine model of certain idiopathic inflammatory disorders of the human central nervous system.
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ABSTRACT: Due to their unique population structure, purebred dogs have emerged as a key model for the study of complex genetic disorders. To evaluate the utility of a newly available high-density canine whole-genome array with >170,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genome-wide association was performed on a small number of case and control dogs to determine disease susceptibility loci in canine necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), a disorder with known non-Mendelian inheritance that shares clinical similarities with atypical variants of multiple sclerosis in humans. Genotyping of 30 NME-affected Pug dogs and 68 healthy control Pugs identified 2 loci associated with NME, including a region within dog leukocyte antigen class II on chromosome 12 that remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Our results support the utility of this high-density SNP array, confirm that dogs are a powerful model for mapping complex genetic disorders and provide important preliminary data to support in depth genetic analysis of NME in numerous affected breeds.The Journal of heredity 08/2011; 102 Suppl 1:S40-6. DOI:10.1093/jhered/esr048 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) system contains many of the functional genes of the immune system, thereby making it a candidate region for involvement in immune-mediated disorders. A number of studies have identified associations between specific DLA class II haplotypes and canine immune hemolytic anemia, thyroiditis, immune polyarthritis, type I diabetes mellitus, hypoadrenocorticism, systemic lupus erythematosus-related disease complex, necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) and anal furunculosis. These studies have relied on sequencing approximately 300 bases of exon 2 of each of the DLA class II genes: DLA-DRB1, DLA-DQA1 and DLA-DQB1. In the present study, an association (odds ratio=4.29) was identified by this method between Weimaraner dogs with hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD) and DLA-DRB1∗01501. To fine map the association with HOD, a genotyping assay of 126 coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from across the entire DLA, spanning a region of 2.5 Mb (3,320,000-5,830,000) on CFA12, was developed and tested on Weimaraners with HOD, as well as two additional breeds with diseases associated with DLA class II: Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers with hypoadrenocorticism and Pug dogs with NME. No significant associations were found between Weimaraners with HOD or Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers with hypoadrenocorticism and SNPs spanning the DLA region. In contrast, significant associations were found with NME in Pug dogs, although the associated region extended beyond the class II genes. By including a larger number of genes from a larger genomic region, a SNP genotyping assay was generated that provides coverage of the extended DLA region and may be useful in identifying and fine mapping DLA associations in dogs.The Veterinary Journal 08/2011; 189(2):220-6. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.023 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We develop methods for automatic environmental monitoring of disposal sites on the deep ocean floor using chemical sensor arrays and statistical hypothesis testing. Such sites have been proposed to relocate dredge materials from harbors and shipping channels. The transport of pollutants is modeled as a diffusion process, and the measurement and statistical models are derived by exploiting the spatial and temporal evolution of the associated concentration distribution. We derive two detectors, the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test and the mean detector and determine their performance in terms of the probabilities of false alarm and detection, The results are applied to the design of chemical sensor arrays satisfying criteria specified in terms of these probabilities, and to optimally select a number of sensors and time samples. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the applicability of our resultsIEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 11/1998; 23(4-23):334 - 343. DOI:10.1109/48.725229 · 1.33 Impact Factor