Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug Dogs associates with dog leukocyte antigen class II and resembles acute variant forms of multiple sclerosis
ABSTRACT Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) is a disorder of Pug Dogs that appears to have an immune etiology and high heritability based on population studies. The present study was undertaken to identify a genetic basis for the disease. A genome-wide association scan with single tandem repeat (STR) markers showed a single strong association near the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) complex on CFA12. Fine resolution mapping with 27 STR markers on CFA12 further narrowed association to the region containing DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and, -DQB1 genes. Sequencing confirmed that affected dogs were more likely to be homozygous for specific alleles at each locus and that these alleles were linked, forming a single high risk haplotype. The strong DLA class II association of NME in Pug Dogs resembles that of human multiple sclerosis (MS). Like MS, NME appears to have an autoimmune basis, involves genetic and nongenetic factors, has a relatively low incidence, is more frequent in females than males, and is associated with a vascularly orientated nonsuppurative inflammation. However, NME of Pug Dogs is more aggressive in disease course than classical human MS, appears to be relatively earlier in onset, and involves necrosis rather than demyelination as the central pathobiologic feature. Thus, Pug Dog encephalitis (PDE) shares clinical features with the less common acute variant forms of MS. Accordingly, NME of Pug Dogs may represent a naturally occurring canine model of certain idiopathic inflammatory disorders of the human central nervous system.
SourceAvailable from: Silvia Sisó[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Canine necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) is a fatal, noninfectious inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. NME has been reported only in a small number of dog breeds, which has led to the presumption that it is a breed-restricted disorder. Our objective was to describe histopathologically confirmed NME in dog breeds in which the condition has not been reported previously and to provide preliminary evidence that NME affects a wider spectrum of dog breeds than previously reported. Four dogs with NME. Archives from 3 institutions and from 1 author's (BS) collection were reviewed to identify histopathologically confirmed cases of NME in breeds in which the disease has not been reported previously. Age, sex, breed, survival from onset of clinical signs, and histopathologic findings were evaluated. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis was identified in 4 small dog breeds (Papillon, Shih Tzu, Coton de Tulear, and Brussels Griffon). Median age at clinical evaluation was 2.5 years. Histopathologic abnormalities included 2 or more of the following: lymphoplasmacytic or histiocytic meningoencephalitis or encephalitis, moderate-to-severe cerebrocortical necrosis, variable involvement of other anatomic locations within the brain (cerebellum, brainstem), and absence of detectable infectious agents. Until now, NME has only been described in 5 small dog breeds. We document an additional 4 small breeds previously not shown to develop NME. Our cases further illustrate that NME is not a breed-restricted disorder and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for dogs with signalment and clinical signs consistent with inflammatory brain disease.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2014; 28(1):198-203. DOI:10.1111/jvim.12233 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) affects toy and small breed dogs causing progressive, often fatal, inflammation and necrosis in the brain. Genetic risk loci for NME previously were identified in pug dogs, particularly associated with the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II complex on chromosome 12, but have not been investigated in other susceptible breeds. We sought to evaluate Maltese and Chihuahua dogs, in addition to pug dogs, to identify novel or shared genetic risk factors for NME development. Genome-wide association testing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Maltese dogs with NME identified 2 regions of genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4 (chr4:74522353T>A, p = 8.1×10-7) and 15 (chr15:53338796A>G, p = 1.5×10-7). Haplotype analysis and fine-mapping suggests that ILR7 and FBXW7, respectively, both important for regulation of immune system function, could be the underlying associated genes. Further evaluation of these regions and the previously identified DLA II locus across all three breeds, revealed an enrichment of nominal significant SNPs associated with chromosome 15 in pug dogs and DLA II in Maltese and Chihuahua dogs. Meta-analysis confirmed effect sizes the same direction in all three breeds for both the chromosome 15 and DLA II loci (p = 8.6×10-11 and p = 2.5×10-7, respectively). This suggests a shared genetic background exists between all breeds and confers susceptibility to NME, but effect sizes might be different among breeds. In conclusion, we identified the first genetic risk factors for NME development in the Maltese, chromosome 4 and chromosome 15, and provide evidence for a shared genetic risk between breeds associated with chromosome 15 and DLA II. Last, DLA II and IL7R both have been implicated in human inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, suggesting that similar pharmacotherapeutic targets across species should be investigated.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112755. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112755 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis is a breed-restricted canine neuroinflammatory disorder affecting young greyhounds in Ireland. A genetic risk factor is suspected because of the development of disease in multiple siblings and an inability to identify a causative infectious agent. The aim of this study was to examine potential associations between dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotype and the presence of the disease. DLA three locus haplotypes were determined in 31 dogs with non-suppurative meningoencephalitis and in 115 healthy control dogs using sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. All dogs were unrelated at the parental level. Two haplotypes (DRB1*01802/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802 and DRB1*01501/DQA1*00601/DQB1*02201) were significantly (P = 0.0099 and 0.037) associated with the presence of meningoencephalitis, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 5.531 (1.168-26.19) and 3.736 (1.446-9.652), respectively. These results confirm that there is an association between DLA class II haplotype and greyhound meningoencephalitis, suggesting an immunogenetic risk factor for the development of the disease. Greyhound meningoencephalitis may be a suitable model for human neuroinflammatory diseases with an immunogenetic component.Tissue Antigens 05/2014; 84(3). DOI:10.1111/tan.12365 · 2.35 Impact Factor