Diagnostic approach in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis
ABSTRACT Contact dermatitis is a highly frequent disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of the affected patients and a relevant socioeconomic impact. According to the pathophysiological mechanisms involved, two major types of contact dermatitis may be recognized: irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The two types may, and often do, coexist. Differentiating between ICD and ACD is often difficult in the clinical setting. The basis for a diagnosis of either ICD or ACD is mainly established by a comprehensive clinical history and physical examination, as well as by performing appropriate diagnostic patch testing. The only useful and reliable method for the diagnosis of ACD remains the patch test. Positive patch test results, the current and/or past relevance of which has to be assessed, are confirmative of contact sensitization. Additional tests, such as the repeated open application test or the provocative use test, are sometimes necessary to confirm a causal relationship. This algorithmic diagnostic approach will allow the adoption of rational measures of allergen or irritant avoidance and the implementation of realistic patient information and education.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, a micromachined pressure sensor based on a sapphire body and a platinum thin film metallization is presented which is targeted for harsh environmental applications. High temperature levels, aggressive media and high pressure loads typically occur in gas turbines, rocket engines or deep drilling systems. For pre-evaluation purposes, a reusable packing is used enabling very effectively device characterization up to temperatures of 300∘C and pressures of 100 bar. As expected, the output signals of the Wheatstone bridge increase with higher pressures, but decrease with enhanced temperature levels. These curves show a maximum, negative drift of about −30 ppm at full temperature and pressure load and the sensitivity is about 10 μV/(V ⋅bar).Procedia Engineering 12/2010; 5:1396-1400. DOI:10.1016/j.proeng.2010.09.376
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ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphoglycoprotein that is expressed by various immune cells in a secreted and intracellular form. It has cytokine, chemotactic and cell signaling functions enhancing Th1 and Th17 immunity and protects against apoptosis. Recent studies found OPN to be modulatory in cell-mediated and immediate-type allergic diseases. In allergic asthma, OPN enhances sensitization but downmodulates Th2-driven IL-4-dominated inflammation. The finding that OPN expression is augmented during specific immunotherapy supports a Th2 suppressive effect of OPN. In Th1-driven delayed-type allergy, such as allergic contact dermatitis, OPN supports dendritic cell migration and IL-12 expression and is secreted by T effector cells and keratinocytes, augmenting Th1-mediated allergy and supporting disease chronification. There are numerous missing links as to how OPN variants modulate allergic inflammation through different OPN receptors. OPN research in allergy is an interesting, rapidly expanding field that has high potential for translational research.Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 01/2011; 7(1):93-109. DOI:10.1586/eci.10.82 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is drawing the attention to the contact dermatitis, an inflammatory skin condition due to pro-inflammatory and toxic factors able to activate the skin innate immunity (irritant contact dermatitis) or caused by a T-cell- mediated hypersensitivity reaction (allergic contact dermatitis). The immune system involvement and a variety of clinical pictures are described in order to better diagnose, prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.Allergologia et Immunopathologia 07/2011; 39(6):374-7. DOI:10.1016/j.aller.2011.05.001 · 1.74 Impact Factor