Diagnostic approach in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis.
ABSTRACT Contact dermatitis is a highly frequent disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of the affected patients and a relevant socioeconomic impact. According to the pathophysiological mechanisms involved, two major types of contact dermatitis may be recognized: irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The two types may, and often do, coexist. Differentiating between ICD and ACD is often difficult in the clinical setting. The basis for a diagnosis of either ICD or ACD is mainly established by a comprehensive clinical history and physical examination, as well as by performing appropriate diagnostic patch testing. The only useful and reliable method for the diagnosis of ACD remains the patch test. Positive patch test results, the current and/or past relevance of which has to be assessed, are confirmative of contact sensitization. Additional tests, such as the repeated open application test or the provocative use test, are sometimes necessary to confirm a causal relationship. This algorithmic diagnostic approach will allow the adoption of rational measures of allergen or irritant avoidance and the implementation of realistic patient information and education.
- Contact Dermatitis 07/2012; 67(1):1-2. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, a micromachined pressure sensor based on a sapphire body and a platinum thin film metallization is presented which is targeted for harsh environmental applications. High temperature levels, aggressive media and high pressure loads typically occur in gas turbines, rocket engines or deep drilling systems. For pre-evaluation purposes, a reusable packing is used enabling very effectively device characterization up to temperatures of 300∘C and pressures of 100 bar. As expected, the output signals of the Wheatstone bridge increase with higher pressures, but decrease with enhanced temperature levels. These curves show a maximum, negative drift of about −30 ppm at full temperature and pressure load and the sensitivity is about 10 μV/(V ⋅bar).Procedia Engineering. 01/2010; 5:1396-1400.
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ABSTRACT: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is triggered by an aberrant hyperinflammatory immune response to innocuous chemical compounds and ranks as the world's most prevalent occupational skin condition. Although a variety of immune effector cells are activated during ACD, regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial in controlling the resulting inflammation. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) regulates cell proliferation and differentiation and accelerates wound healing and regeneration in several organs including the skin. Recently IGF-1 has also been implicated in protection from autoimmune inflammation by expansion of Treg cells. Here, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of IGF-1 in mouse skin suppresses ACD in a Treg cell-specific manner, increasing the number of Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the affected area and stimulating lymphocyte production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10. Similar therapeutic effects can be achieved with systemic or topical delivery of IGF-1, implicating this growth factor as a promising new therapeutic option for the treatment of ACD.Disease Models and Mechanisms 08/2014; 7(8):977-85. · 4.96 Impact Factor