Challenges of treating asthma in people who smoke.
ABSTRACT Cigarette smoking is common in asthma and is associated with poor symptom control and a reduced therapeutic response to inhaled and oral corticosteroids as compared with nonsmokers with asthma. This review examines the range of adverse health effects of smoking in asthma, the inflammatory mechanisms that may influence the efficacy of current drugs and discusses potential future therapeutic directions.
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ABSTRACT: The relation between smoking and risk of asthma has been well-examined; however little attention has been paid to the correlation between smoking and asthma symptoms. The aims of this study were to examine respiratory symptoms in asthmatics with a highly prevalent use of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and to assess the effects of smoking and its cessation. A cross-sectional study of pulmonologist-based 3197 asthmatics (men 45.2%, ages 20-97) was performed using a questionnaire about smoking habits, the incidence and frequency of symptoms (sputum, cough and wheezing, night symptoms, and shortness of breath), physical activity interference, and medication. Although 81.4% of the patients used ICS according to the international guideline, 14.9% had activity interference, and daily symptoms remained in 43.3%. At the time of the questionnaire, 21.6% were current and 25.1% were ex-smokers. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors of significance (p < 0.0001) were (1) smoking; for all four symptoms, (2) age and duration of asthma; for shortness of breath. Current smokers were at a risk of sputum (age-adjusted odds ratio 2.32 [95% confidence interval 1.73-3.11]; 2.09 [1.57-2.79]), of cough and wheezing (2.38 [1.81-3.14]; 1.78 [1.35-2.36]), of night symptoms (1.95 [1.41-2.60]; 1.47 [1.09-1.98]), and of shortness of breath (1.70 [1.26-2.28]; 1.30 [0.97-1.75]) in men and women, respectively. These ratios in ex-smokers decreased to the level similar to nonsmokers. Although 81.4% of asthmatic patients used ICS, 43.3% complained of daily respiratory symptoms, especially sputum. It is suggested that the effects of ICS on asthma symptoms may be interfered with by smoking and therefore more emphasis should be placed on cessation of smoking.Journal of Asthma 05/2003; 40(3):243-50. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study was designed to assess the effect of cigarette smoking on the therapeutic response to oral corticosteroids in chronic stable asthma. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study with prednisolone (40 mg daily) or placebo for 2 weeks in smokers with asthma, ex-smokers with asthma, and never-smokers with asthma. All subjects had reversibility in FEV1 after nebulized albuterol of 15% or more and a mean postbronchodilator FEV1% predicted of more than 80%. Efficacy was assessed using FEV1, daily PEF, and an asthma control score. There was a significant improvement after oral prednisolone compared with placebo in FEV1, ml (mean difference, 237; 95% confidence intervals, 43, 231; p = 0.019), morning PEF L/m (mean difference, 36.8; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 11, 62; p = 0.006), and asthma control score (mean difference, -0.72; 95% CI, -1.2, -0.3; p = 0.004) in never-smokers with asthma but no change in smokers with asthma (mean differences of 47, 6.5, and -0.05 with p values of 0.605, 0.47, and 0.865, respectively). Ex-smokers with asthma had a significant improvement in morning and night PEF (mean difference, 29.1; CI, 2.3, 56; p = 0.04 and 52.4; CI, 26, 79; p = 0.003, respectively), but not in FEV1 or asthma control score. We conclude that active smoking impairs the efficacy of short-term oral corticosteroid treatment in chronic asthma.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 01/2004; 168(11):1308-11. · 11.04 Impact Factor