Complementary feeding: inappropriate practices in infants.
ABSTRACT To assess feeding practices and dietary intake of healthy infants in three Brazilian municipalities.
By means of a prospective study, we analyzed the food record of 7 consecutive days of an intentional sample (quota and weighted sampling) of 179 healthy infants, aged between 4 and 12 months, from the municipalities of Curitiba, São Paulo, and Recife, Brazil, who were not being exclusively breastfed. Mothers received oral and written information provided by a nutritionist with the purpose of standardizing the feeding data. The computer program NutWin was used to calculate the dietary intake.
The median of the infants' age was 6.8 months (4.0-12.6 months). We found that 50.3% of the infants were no longer being exclusively breastfed. Of these, 12.0 and 6.7% among the infants younger and older than 6 months, respectively, were fed with infant formulae instead of breast milk. Therefore, most infants received whole cow's milk. Infant formula dilution was correct in only 23.8 and 34.7% of the infants younger and older than 6 months old, respectively. With regards to complementary feeding, we found that the median age was 4 months for its introduction and 5.5 months for the introduction of family diet. There was high quantitative inappropriateness of micronutrient intake for infants between 6 and 12 months old who were not exclusively breastfed, mainly in terms of zinc (75%) and iron (45%).
The present study showed a high frequency of inappropriate feeding practices and dietary intake in very young infants. These practices may lead to an increased risk of development of chronic diseases in the future.
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ABSTRACT: Infants and young children are at an increased risk of malnutrition from six months of age onwards, when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet all their nutritional requirements and complementary feeding should be started. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the practices of complementary feeding. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at two private hospitals - Dr TMA Pai Hospital Udupi and Dr TMA Pai Hospital Karkala and a public hospital, Regional Advanced Paediatric Care Centre, Mangalore, of coastal south India for a two-month period from August 2010 to October 2010. Two-hundred mothers of children between six months and two years attending the paediatric outpatient departments of the above-mentioned hospitals for growth monitoring, immunisation and minor illnesses such as upper respiratory tract infections were selected for the study. The subjects were selected for the study by the order of their arrival to the outpatient department during the study period. In the present study 77.5% mothers had started complementary feeding at the recommended time of six months. Only 32% of mothers were giving an adequate quantity of complementary feeds. The association of initiation of complementary feeding with socio-economic status, birth order, place of delivery and maternal education was found to be statistically significant. However the practice of giving an adequate quantity of complementary feeds was significantly associated only with the place of delivery. In the present study, initiation of complementary feeding at the recommended time of six months was seen in the majority of children. However the quantity of complementary feeding was insufficient. Advice about breast feeding and complementary feeding during antenatal check-ups and postnatal visits might improve feeding practices.Australasian Medical Journal 01/2011; 4(5):252-7.
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ABSTRACT: New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a health, environmental and social impact. The European Union is fighting diseases characteristic of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relating to aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discussed. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvement in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health are also highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional cell models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.Nutrients 06/2010; 2(6):611-25. · 2.07 Impact Factor