[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to provide guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of androgen deficiency syndromes in adult men.
The Task Force was composed of a chair, selected by the Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of The Endocrine Society, five additional experts, a methodologist, and a professional writer. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration.
The Task Force used systematic reviews of available evidence to inform its key recommendations. The Task Force used consistent language and graphical descriptions of both the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence, using the recommendations of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation group.
Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during three group meetings, several conference calls, and e-mail communications. The drafts prepared by the panelists with the help of a professional writer were reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee, Clinical Affairs Committee, and Council. The version approved by the Council was placed on The Endocrine Society's web site for comments by members. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes.
We recommend making a diagnosis of androgen deficiency only in men with consistent symptoms and signs and unequivocally low serum testosterone levels. We suggest the measurement of morning total testosterone level by a reliable assay as the initial diagnostic test. We recommend confirmation of the diagnosis by repeating the measurement of morning total testosterone and in some patients by measurement of free or bioavailable testosterone level, using accurate assays. We recommend testosterone therapy for symptomatic men with androgen deficiency, who have low testosterone levels, to induce and maintain secondary sex characteristics and to improve their sexual function, sense of well-being, muscle mass and strength, and bone mineral density. We recommend against starting testosterone therapy in patients with breast or prostate cancer, a palpable prostate nodule or induration or prostate-specific antigen greater than 3 ng/ml without further urological evaluation, erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 50%), hyperviscosity, untreated obstructive sleep apnea, severe lower urinary tract symptoms with International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) greater than 19, or class III or IV heart failure. When testosterone therapy is instituted, we suggest aiming at achieving testosterone levels during treatment in the mid-normal range with any of the approved formulations, chosen on the basis of the patient's preference, consideration of pharmacokinetics, treatment burden, and cost. Men receiving testosterone therapy should be monitored using a standardized plan.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of a 12-week long-acting testosterone administration on maximal exercise capacity, ventilatory efficiency, muscle strength, insulin resistance, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).
CHF is characterized by a metabolic shift favoring catabolism and impairment in skeletal muscle bulk and function that could be involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure.
Seventy elderly patients with stable CHF-median age 70 years, ejection fraction 31.8 +/- 7%-were randomly assigned to receive testosterone (n = 35, intramuscular injection every 6 weeks) or placebo (n = 35), both on top of optimal medical therapy. At baseline and at the end of the study, all patients underwent echocardiogram, cardiopulmonary exercise test, 6-min walk test (6MWT), quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and isokinetic strength (peak torque) and BRS assessment (sequences technique).
Baseline peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and quadriceps isometric strength showed a direct relation with serum testosterone concentration. Peak VO(2) significantly improved in testosterone but was unchanged in placebo. Insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in testosterone. The MVC and peak torque significantly increased in testosterone but not in placebo. The BRS significantly improved in testosterone but not in placebo. Increase in testosterone levels was significantly related to improvement in peak VO(2) and MVC. There were no significant changes in left ventricular function either in testosterone or placebo.
These results suggest that long-acting testosterone therapy improves exercise capacity, muscle strength, glucose metabolism, and BRS in men with moderately severe CHF. Testosterone benefits seem to be mediated by metabolic and peripheral effects.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2009; 54(10):919-27. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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