Elimination of persistent toxicants from the human body.
ABSTRACT There is compelling evidence that various chemical agents are important determinants of myriad health afflictions--several xenobiotics have the potential to disrupt reproductive, developmental, and neurological processes and some agents in common use have carcinogenic, epigenetic, endocrine-disrupting, and immune-altering action. Some toxicants appear to have biological effect at miniscule levels and certain chemical compounds are persistent and bioaccumulative within the human body. Despite escalating public health measures to preclude further exposures, many people throughout the world have already accrued a significant body burden of toxicants, placing them at potential health risk. As a result, increasing discussion is underway about possible interventions to facilitate elimination of persistent toxicants from the human organism in order to obviate health affliction and to potentially ameliorate chronic degenerative illness. An overview of the clinical aspects of detoxification is presented with discussion of established and emerging interventions for the elimination of persistent xenobiotics. Potential therapies to circumvent enterohepatic recirculation and a case report highlighting a clinical outcome associated with detoxification are also presented for consideration.
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ABSTRACT: Background Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of commonly used synthetic chemicals that have become widespread environmental contaminants. In human serum, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perflurooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are most frequently detected, in part owing to their long elimination half-lives of between 3.8 yrs (PFOA) and 8.5 yrs (PFHxS). These PFAAs also cross the placenta and have been associated with developmental toxicity, and some are considered likely human carcinogens. Interventions to eliminate PFAAs in highly contaminated individuals would reduce future health risks, but minimal research has been conducted on methods to facilitate accelerated human clearance of these persistent substances. Methods Six patients with elevated serum concentrations from a single family were treated by intermittent phlebotomy over a 4–5 year period at intervals similar to, or less frequent than what is done for routine blood donation at Canadian Blood Services. The apparent elimination half-life (HLapp) for PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA in this treated population was calculated in each patient and compared to the intrinsic elimination half-lives (HLin) from a literature reference population of untreated fluorochemical manufacturing plant retirees (n = 26, age >55 yrs). Results For all three PFAAs monitored during phlebotomy, HLapp in each of the family members (except the mother, who had a low rate of venesection) was significantly shorter than the geometric mean HL measured in the reference population, and in some cases were even shorter compared to the fastest eliminator in the reference population. Conclusion This study suggests significantly accelerated PFAA clearance with regular phlebotomy treatment, but the small sample size and the lack of controls in this clinical intervention precludes drawing firm conclusions. Given the minimal risks of intermittent phlebotomy, this may be an effective and safe clinical intervention to diminish the body burden of PFAAs in highly exposed people.PLoS ONE 12/2014; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114295 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Juxtaposed alongside the ongoing rise in the incidence and prevalence of dementia, is the surge of recent research confirming widespread exposure and bioaccumulation of chemical toxicants. Evidence from sources such as the Centers for Disease Control reveals that most people have accrued varying degrees of assorted toxic pollutants including heavy metals, flame retardants, and pesticide residues within their bodies. It has been well established that many of these toxicants have neurodegenerative as well as neurodevelopmental impact as a result of various pathophysiologic mechanisms including neuronal mitochondrial toxicity and disruption of neurotransmitter regulation. Elimination of stockpiled toxicants from the body may diminish adverse toxicant impact on human biology and allow restoration of normal physiological function. Incorporating a review of medical literature on toxicant exposure and dementia with a case history of a lead-exposed individual diagnosed with dementia, this paper will discuss a much overlooked and potentially widespread cause of declining brain function and dementia.Behavioural neurology 02/2015; Article ID 620143. DOI:10.1155/2015/620143 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To explore the underlying causation of unexplained multimorbidity with sensitivities and to discuss the management of patients who present with this perplexing condition.Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien 06/2014; 60(6):533-538. · 1.40 Impact Factor