Retinoblastoma patients have a strongly increased risk of second malignancies, and survivors with a third or subsequent malignancy are increasingly observed. However, it has not been examined whether survivors who developed a second malignancy have a greater risk of a subsequent malignancy. On the basis of the Dutch retinoblastoma registry, the risk of a third malignancy was compared with cancer risk in the Dutch population. Cox model analysis with a time-dependent covariate was used to compare the subsequent malignancy risk and survival among patients with and without a second malignancy. Risk of a third malignancy was increased 8-fold compared with the general population. The hazard ratio (HR) of a third malignancy after a second malignancy was more than 7-fold increased compared to the risk of a second malignancy after retinoblastoma. Radiotherapy increased the risk 3-fold. A third malignancy was associated with worse survival compared with survival of patients only diagnosed with a second malignancy (HR=5.0). Survivors of retinoblastoma who already developed a second primary malignancy have an even higher risk of subsequent primary malignancies than retinoblastoma survivors without a second malignancy. Treating physicians and patients should be aware of this higher risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. The diagnosis is usually established by the ophthalmologist on the basis of fundoscopy and US. Together with US, high-resolution MRI has emerged as an important imaging modality for pretreatment assessment, i.e. for diagnostic confirmation, detection of local tumor extent, detection of associated developmental malformation of the brain and detection of associated intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (trilateral retinoblastoma). Minimum requirements for pretreatment diagnostic evaluation of retinoblastoma or mimicking lesions are presented, based on consensus among members of the European Retinoblastoma Imaging Collaboration (ERIC). The most appropriate techniques for imaging in a child with leukocoria are reviewed. CT is no longer recommended. Implementation of a standardized MRI protocol for retinoblastoma in clinical practice may benefit children worldwide, especially those with hereditary retinoblastoma, since a decreased use of CT reduces the exposure to ionizing radiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the risk of second cancer (SC) in long-term survivors of retinoblastoma (Rb) according to classification of germline mutation, based on family history of Rb and laterality.
We assembled a cohort of 1,852 1-year survivors of Rb (bilateral, n = 1,036; unilateral, n = 816). SCs were ascertained by medical records and self-reports and confirmed by pathology reports. Classification of RB1 germline mutation, inherited or de novo, was inferred by laterality of Rb and positive family history of Rb. Standardized incidence ratios and cumulative incidence for all SCs combined and for soft tissue sarcomas, bone cancers, and melanoma were calculated. The influence of host- and therapy-related risk factors for SC was assessed by Poisson regression for bilateral survivors.
We observed a relative risk (RR) of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.86) for SCs in bilateral survivors associated with a family history of Rb, adjusted for treatment, age, and length of follow-up. The risk for melanoma was significantly elevated for survivors with a family history of Rb (RR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.23 to 7.16), but risks for bone or soft tissue sarcomas were not elevated. The cumulative incidence of SCs 50 years after diagnosis of bilateral Rb, with adjustment for competing risk of death, was significantly higher for survivors with a family history (47%; 95% CI, 35% to 59%) than survivors without a family history (38%; 95% CI, 32% to 44%; P = .004).
Rb survivors with bilateral disease and an inherited germline mutation are at slightly higher risk of an SC compared with those with a de novo germline mutation, in particular melanoma, perhaps because of shared genetic alterations.
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