Long-Lasting Maternal Depression and Child Growth at 4 Years of Age: A Cohort Study

Post-graduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 09/2010; 157(3):401-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.03.008
Source: PubMed


To investigate the association between sustained maternal depression at 12, 24, and 48 months post-partum and child anthropometry at age of 4 years.
A total of 99.2% of the 4287 children born in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled in a cohort study. At 3, 12, 24, and 48 months, mothers were interviewed and provided information on several characteristics. Maternal depression was investigated through the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores at 48 months, according to World Health Organization growth curves, were the outcomes. Multivariate analyses were conducted through logistic regression.
At the 48-month follow-up, of the 3792 children, prevalence of underweight was 1.7%; stunting, 3.6%; wasting, 0.6%; and overweight, 12.2%. Depression (EPDS>or=13) was observed in 17.9% of the 3748 mothers. Of the mothers, 4.7% were persistently depressed at the 12-, 24-, and 48-month visits. In crude analyses, maternal depression was positively associated with underweight and stunting. After adjustment, maternal depression was not associated with any of the anthropometric indices.
Long-lasting maternal depression at 12, 24, and 48 months post-partum is not a risk factor for impaired child growth or overweight at age of 4 years.

Download full-text


Available from: Marlos RODRIGUES Domingues,
  • Source
    • "Maternal depressive symptoms are known risk factors for poor child development outcomes (e.g., Beck, 1998; Cooper and Murray, 1998). Various studies have documented impairments in children of depressed parents on an array of factors such as growth (Duarte et al., 2012; Santos et al., 2010), mental health (Muzik and Borovska, 2010), illness (Casey et al., 2004; Turney, 2011), feeding (Casey et al., 2004; Ndokera and MacArthur, 2011; Rahman et al., 2004) and cognitive development (Azak, 2012). Because there is an emerging literature documenting links between postpartum depression and differences in child development (Conroy et al., 2012; Foss et al., 2004; Korja et al., 2008; Paulson et al., 2006, 2009; Podestá et al., 2013; Quevedo et al., 2012; Walker et al., 2007), international research in this area is timely and important. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) is a screening instrument that has been shown to be an effective measure of depression in postpartum women and is widely used in developing nations. Methods The SRQ was administered to 2028 mothers from eight nations at two time points: one and six months postpartum. All data were obtained from the Interactions of Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study. The sample included women from MAL-ED sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. This study examined three aspects of validity of SRQ scores including (a) structural validity, (b) cross-cultural invariance, and (c) invariance over time. Results A 16-item, one-factor structure with items reflecting somatic symptoms removed was deemed to be superior to the original structure in this postpartum population. Although differential item functioning (DIF) across sites was evident the one-factor model was a good fit to the data from seven sites, and the structure was invariant across the one- and six-month time points. Limitations Findings are based on data from self-report scales. No information about the clinical status of the participants was available. Conclusions Overall, findings support the validity of a modified model of the SRQ among postpartum women. Somatic symptoms (e.g., headaches, not sleeping well) may not reflect internalizing problems in a postpartum population. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2014; 167:178–186. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.039 · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "We found an association between mild maternal depressive symptoms and child BMI over time, but no relation between moderate to severe depressive symptoms and child BMI. This finding adds to mixed results of studies in both developed and developing countries, showing positive, negative, and null associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child BMI [4,7,8,30]. One study showed an association between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and child overall adiposity using data from birth to age three, but no relation was observed with BMI z-score, weight-for-height z-score or the ratio of subscapular to tricep skinfold (a measure of central adiposity) [30]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Maternal depressive symptoms are negatively associated with early child growth in developing countries; however, few studies have examined this relation in developed countries or used a longitudinal design with data past the second year of the child’s life. We investigated if and when early maternal depressive symptoms affect average growth in young children up to age 6 in a nationally representative sample of US children. Methods Using data from 6,550 singleton births from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study -- Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), we fit growth trajectory models with random effects to examine the relation between maternal depressive symptoms at 9 months based on the twelve-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and child height and body mass index (BMI) to age 6 years. Results Mothers with moderate/severe depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum had children with shorter stature at this same point in time [average 0.26 cm shorter; 95% CI: 5 cm, 48 cm] than mothers without depressive symptoms; children whose mothers reported postpartum depressive symptoms remained significantly shorter throughout the child’s first 6 years. Conclusions Results suggest that the first year postpartum is a critical window for addressing maternal depressive symptoms in order to optimize child growth. Future studies should investigate the role of caregiving and feeding practices as potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms and child growth trajectories.
    BMC Pediatrics 07/2014; 14(1):185. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-14-185 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "; 7, O'Brien et al. (2007); 8, Santos et al. (2010); 9, Wang et al. (2013). a Studies used data from the same cohort ( "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal depression is prevalent and has been associated with parenting practices that influence child weight. In this systematic review we aimed to examine the prospective association between maternal depression and child overweight. We searched four databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, and Academic Search Premier) to identify studies for inclusion. We included studies with a prospective design with at least one year follow-up, measuring maternal depression at any stage after childbirth, and examining child overweight or obesity status, BMI z-score or percentile, or adiposity. Two authors extracted data independently and findings were qualitatively synthesized. We identified nine prospective studies for inclusion. Results were examined separately for episodic depression (depression at a single measurement occasion) and chronic depression (depression on multiple measurement occasions). Mixed results were observed for the relationship between episodic depression and indicators of child adiposity. Chronic depression, but not episodic depression, was associated with greater risk for child overweight. While chronic depression may be associated with child overweight, further research is needed. Research is also needed to determine whether maternal depression influences child weight outcomes in adolescence and to investigate elements of the family ecology that may moderate the effect of maternal depression on child overweight.
    Preventive Medicine 11/2013; 59(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.11.020 · 3.09 Impact Factor
Show more