Androgen regulation of gene expression.
ABSTRACT The biological action of androgenic male sex steroid hormones in prostate tissue is mediated by the androgen receptor, a nuclear transcription factor. The transcriptional program of androgenic signaling in the prostate consists of thousands of gene targets whose products play a role in almost all cellular functions, including cellular proliferation, survival, lipid metabolism, and differentiation. This review will provide a summary of the most recent data regarding androgen-regulated target genes and modulation of androgen receptor activity, especially with regard to androgen-dependent and castration-recurrent prostate cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Changmeng Cai[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fusion of the androgen receptor-regulated (AR-regulated) TMPRSS2 gene with ERG in prostate cancer (PCa) causes androgen-stimulated overexpression of ERG, an ETS transcription factor, but critical downstream effectors of ERG-mediating PCa development remain to be established. Expression of the SOX9 transcription factor correlated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusion in 3 independent PCa cohorts, and ERG-dependent expression of SOX9 was confirmed by RNAi in the fusion-positive VCaP cell line. SOX9 has been shown to mediate ductal morphogenesis in fetal prostate and maintain stem/progenitor cell pools in multiple adult tissues, and has also been linked to PCa and other cancers. SOX9 overexpression resulted in neoplasia in murine prostate and stimulated tumor invasion, similarly to ERG. Moreover, SOX9 depletion in VCaP cells markedly impaired invasion and growth in vitro and in vivo, establishing SOX9 as a critical downstream effector of ERG. Finally, we found that ERG regulated SOX9 indirectly by opening a cryptic AR-regulated enhancer in the SOX9 gene. Together, these results demonstrate that ERG redirects AR to a set of genes including SOX9 that are not normally androgen stimulated, and identify SOX9 as a critical downstream effector of ERG in TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive PCa.The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2013; 123(3):1109-22. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) has been suggested as a poor prognostic indicator of various human cancers and may possibly have a role as a coactivator of androgen receptor (AR). However, their roles in lymphoma are still unknown. We investigated the effect of the expression of DBC1 and AR in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Immunohistochemical expression of DBC1 and AR were evaluated in 101 DLBCL samples by tissue microarray. Positive expression of DBC1 and AR was seen in 73% and 70% of DLBCL, respectively. In total DLBCL patients, DBC1 and AR expression were significantly associated with high clinical stage, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and high international prognostic index scores, and they predicted shorter overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) by univariate analysis. DBC1 expression was also an independent prognostic indicator by multivariate analysis (OS, P = .017; RFS, P = .004). Especially, both DBC1 and AR expression significantly correlated with shorter OS and RFS in non-germinal center B cell (non-GCB)-type DLBCL by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, DBC1 expression was an independent prognostic predictor for OS (P = .035) and AR expression significantly correlated with RFS (P = .005). We demonstrate that the expression of DBC1 and AR are significant prognostic indicators for DLBCL patients, especially for unfavorable non-GCB-type DLBCL.Translational oncology 06/2013; 6(3):370-81. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Pim proteins are a family of highly homologous protein serine/threonine kinases that have been found to be overexpressed in cancer. Elevated levels of Pim1 kinase were first discovered in human leukemia and lymphomas. However, more recently Pim1 was found to be increased in solid tumors, including pancreatic and prostate cancers, and has been proposed as a prognostic marker. Although the Pim kinases have been identified as oncogenes in transgenic models, they have weak transforming abilities on their own. However, they have been shown to greatly enhance the ability of other genes or chemical carcinogens to induce tumors. To explore the role of Pim1 in prostate cancer, we generated conditional Pim1 transgenic mice, expressed Pim1 in prostate epithelium, and analyzed the contribution of PIM1 to neoplastic initiation and progression. Accordingly, we explored the effect of PIM1 overexpression in 3 different settings: upon hormone treatment, during aging, and in combination with the absence of one Pten allele. We have found that Pim1 overexpression increased the severity of mouse prostate intraepithelial neoplasias (mPIN) moderately in all three settings. Furthermore, Pim1 overexpression, in combination with the hormone treatment, increased inflammation surrounding target tissues leading to pyelonephritis in transgenic animals. Analysis of senescence induced in these prostatic lesions showed that the lesions induced in the presence of inflammation exhibited different behavior than those induced in the absence of inflammation. While high grade prostate preneoplastic lesions, mPIN grades III and IV, in the presence of inflammation did not show any senescence markers and demonstrated high levels of Ki67 staining, untreated animals without inflammation showed senescence markers and had low levels of Ki67 staining in similar high grade lesions. Our data suggest that Pim1 might contribute to progression rather than initiation in prostate neoplasia.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60277. · 3.73 Impact Factor