Androgen regulation of gene expression.
ABSTRACT The biological action of androgenic male sex steroid hormones in prostate tissue is mediated by the androgen receptor, a nuclear transcription factor. The transcriptional program of androgenic signaling in the prostate consists of thousands of gene targets whose products play a role in almost all cellular functions, including cellular proliferation, survival, lipid metabolism, and differentiation. This review will provide a summary of the most recent data regarding androgen-regulated target genes and modulation of androgen receptor activity, especially with regard to androgen-dependent and castration-recurrent prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) has been suggested as a poor prognostic indicator of various human cancers and may possibly have a role as a coactivator of androgen receptor (AR). However, their roles in lymphoma are still unknown. We investigated the effect of the expression of DBC1 and AR in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Immunohistochemical expression of DBC1 and AR were evaluated in 101 DLBCL samples by tissue microarray. Positive expression of DBC1 and AR was seen in 73% and 70% of DLBCL, respectively. In total DLBCL patients, DBC1 and AR expression were significantly associated with high clinical stage, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and high international prognostic index scores, and they predicted shorter overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) by univariate analysis. DBC1 expression was also an independent prognostic indicator by multivariate analysis (OS, P = .017; RFS, P = .004). Especially, both DBC1 and AR expression significantly correlated with shorter OS and RFS in non-germinal center B cell (non-GCB)-type DLBCL by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, DBC1 expression was an independent prognostic predictor for OS (P = .035) and AR expression significantly correlated with RFS (P = .005). We demonstrate that the expression of DBC1 and AR are significant prognostic indicators for DLBCL patients, especially for unfavorable non-GCB-type DLBCL.Translational oncology 06/2013; 6(3):370-81. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SCOPE: Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is critical for all aspects of prostate growth and tumorigenesis. The glucosinolate-derived phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) has recently been demonstrated to reduce the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) and inhibit PCa cell growth. We previously reported that p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), a co-regulator for AR, is upregulated in PCa cells through suppression of the mir-17 gene. Here, we assessed the effects of PEITC on PCAF expression and AR-regulated transcriptional activity in PCa cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using AR-responsive LNCaP cells, we observed the inhibitory effects of PEITC on the dihydrotestosterone-stimulated AR transcriptional activity and cell growth of PCa cells. Interestingly, overexpression of PCAF attenuated the inhibitory effects of PEITC on dihydrotestosterone-stimulated AR transcriptional activity. Expression of PCAF was upregulated in PCa cells through suppression of miR-17. PEITC treatment significantly decreased PCAF expression and promoted transcription of miR-17 in LNCaP cells. Functional inhibition of miR-17 attenuated the suppression of PCAF in cells treated by PEITC. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that PEITC inhibits AR-regulated transcriptional activity and cell growth of PCa cells through miR-17-mediated suppression of PCAF, suggesting a new mechanism by which PEITC modulates PCa cell growth.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 05/2013; · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide (formerly MDV3100 and available commercially as Xtandi®), a novel androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitor, blocks the growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in cellular model systems and was shown in a clinical study to increase survival in patients with metastatic CRPC. Enzalutamide inhibits multiple steps of AR signaling: binding of androgens to AR, AR nuclear translocation, and association of AR with DNA. Here, we investigate the effects of enzalutamide on AR signaling, AR-dependent gene expression and cell apoptosis. METHODS: The expression of AR target gene prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was measured in LnCaP and C4-2 cells. AR nuclear translocation was assessed in HEK-293 cells stably transfected with AR-yellow fluorescent protein. The in vivo effects of enzalutamide were determined in a mouse xenograft model of CRPC. Differential gene expression in LNCaP cells was measured using Affymetrix human genome microarray technology. RESULTS: We found that unlike bicalutamide, enzalutamide lacked AR agonistic activity at effective doses and did not induce PSA expression or AR nuclear translocation. Additionally, it is more effective than bicalutamide at inhibiting agonist-induced AR nuclear translocation. Enzalutamide induced the regression of tumor volume in a CRPC xenograft model and apoptosis in AR-over-expressing prostate cancer cells. Finally, gene expression profiling in LNCaP cells indicated that enzalutamide opposes agonist-induced changes in genes involved in processes such as cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that enzalutamide efficiently inhibits AR signaling, and we suggest that its lack of AR agonist activity may be important for these effects. Prostate 9999: XX-XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Prostate 06/2013; · 3.84 Impact Factor