Androgen Regulation of Gene Expression

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Advances in Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 4.26). 01/2010; 107:137-62. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-230X(10)07005-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The biological action of androgenic male sex steroid hormones in prostate tissue is mediated by the androgen receptor, a nuclear transcription factor. The transcriptional program of androgenic signaling in the prostate consists of thousands of gene targets whose products play a role in almost all cellular functions, including cellular proliferation, survival, lipid metabolism, and differentiation. This review will provide a summary of the most recent data regarding androgen-regulated target genes and modulation of androgen receptor activity, especially with regard to androgen-dependent and castration-recurrent prostate cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) has a pivotal role in the growth and survival of prostate cancer (PCa). Arrestin2 (Arr2) is a ubiquitous scaffolding/adaptor protein first characterized as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. In this study, we report that Arr2 additionally functions as a positive regulator of AR expression and function in PCa cells. Expression level of Arr2 correlates with that of AR, and knockdown of Arr2 inhibits the expression of AR and its effectors prostate-specific antigen, transmembrane protease serine 2, FK506-binding protein 51 and fatty acid synthase. Mechanistically, the knockdown of Arr2 attenuates the binding of AR to androgen response elements and consequently decreases transcription of AR-regulated genes. The inhibition of AR by Arr2 knockdown occurs in both androgen-dependent and castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) cells, although the effect is more prominent in CRPC. Arr2 knockdown inhibits the in vitro CRPC cell proliferation, prostasphere growth and invasion, as well as the in vivo prostate tumor formation, local invasion and distant metastasis. These results illustrate a new role for Arr2 in the expression and activation of AR and its potential relevance as a target for therapeutic intervention and monitoring of disease progression.Oncogene advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.252.
    Oncogene 08/2014; DOI:10.1038/onc.2014.252 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Identifying cellular signaling pathways that become corrupted in the presence of androgens that increase the metastatic potential of organ-confined tumor cells is critical to devising strategies capable of attenuating the metastatic progression of hormone-naïve, organ-confined tumors. In localized prostate cancers, gene fusions that place ETS-family transcription factors under the control of androgens drive gene expression programs that increase the invasiveness of organ-confined tumor cells. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a downstream target of ERG, whose upregulation in prostate-tumor cells contributes to their migration from the prostate gland. Recent evidence suggests that CXCR4-mediated proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells is regulated by CXCR7 through its scavenging of chemokine CXCL12. However, the role of androgens in regulating CXCR4-mediated motility with respect to CXCR7 function in prostate-cancer cells remains unclear. Methods Immunocytochemistry, western blot, and affinity-purification analyses were used to study how androgens influenced the expression, subcellular localization, and function of CXCR7, CXCR4, and androgen receptor (AR) in LNCaP prostate-tumor cells. Moreover, luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to study how chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12 regulate androgen-regulated genes (ARGs) in LNCaP prostate-tumor cells. Lastly, cell motility assays were carried out to determine how androgens influenced CXCR4-dependent motility through CXCL12. Results Here we show that, in the LNCaP prostate-tumor cell line, androgens coordinate the expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7, thereby promoting CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated cell motility. RNA interference experiments revealed functional interactions between AR and CXCR7 in these cells. Co-localization and affinity-purification experiments support a physical interaction between AR and CXCR7 in LNCaP cells. Unexpectedly, CXCR7 resided in the nuclear compartment and modulated AR-mediated transcription. Moreover, androgen-mediated cell motility correlated positively with the co-localization of CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors, suggesting that cell migration may be linked to functional CXCR4/CXCR7 heterodimers. Lastly, CXCL12-mediated cell motility was CXCR7-dependent, with CXCR7 expression required for optimal expression of CXCR4 protein. Conclusions Overall, our results suggest that inhibition of CXCR7 function might decrease the metastatic potential of organ-confined prostate cancers. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1201-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114487. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114487 · 3.53 Impact Factor