Effects of feeding pattern on ghrelin and insulin secretion in pigs.
ABSTRACT Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has been implicated in the regulation of feed intake, but little is known about its secretion in pigs. Hence, the effect of feeding pattern on the regulation of ghrelin secretion was tested. In experiment 1, barrows were allotted randomly into 1 of 2 groups, (1) ad libitum fed (CONT) and (2) limited access to feed (once per day, MEAL). Blood samples were taken through jugular catheters every 15 min for 6 h after 7 d on the experimental feeding regimen. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay. Ghrelin concentrations in the MEAL pigs were elevated before feeding and declined after feeding (P < 0.01). No pattern in plasma ghrelin concentrations was observed in the CONT pigs, but ghrelin concentrations were lower than in the MEAL group. Insulin concentrations were greater in CONT pigs (P < 0.01) during most of the sampling and increased after feeding in the MEAL pigs (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the treatments were the same as in experiment 1; however, the amount of feed was increased in the MEAL group so that their daily intake was similar to the CONT pigs. Ghrelin concentrations in the MEAL group were again elevated before the meal and declined afterward (P < 0.01). Insulin but not glucose concentrations were negatively correlated with ghrelin. Once-per-day feeding resulted in increased plasma concentrations of ghrelin, which decreased after feeding. Ghrelin may be involved in the regulation of feed intake in pigs.
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ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone secreted from endocrine cells in the stomach and other tissues. Acylation of ghrelin is essential for appetite regulation. Vigorous exercise induces appetite suppression, but this does not appear to be related to suppressed concentrations of total ghrelin. This study examined the effect of exercise and feeding on plasma acylated ghrelin and appetite. Nine male subjects aged 19-25 yr participated in two, 9-h trials (exercise and control) in a random crossover design. Trials began at 0800 in the morning after an overnight fast. In the exercise trial, subjects ran for 60 min at 72% of maximum oxygen uptake between 0800 and 0900. After this, they rested for 8 h and consumed a test meal at 1100. In the control trial, subjects rested for 9 h and consumed a test meal at 1100. Area under the curve values for plasma acylated ghrelin concentration (assessed from venous blood samples) were lower over the first 3 h and the full 9 h of the exercise trial compared with the control trial: 317+/-135 vs. 510+/-186 pg.ml(-1).3 h and 917+/-342 vs. 1,401+/-521 pg.ml(-1).9 h (means+/-SE) respectively (P<0.05). Area under the curve values for hunger (assessed using a visual scale) were lower over the first 3 h of the exercise trial compared with the control trial (P=0.013). These findings demonstrate that plasma acylated ghrelin concentration and hunger are suppressed during running.Journal of Applied Physiology 06/2007; 102(6):2165-71. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objectives were to determine relative ADG, ADFI, behavior, and endocrine responses in weaned pigs receiving exogenous ghrelin. Twenty-four barrows weaned at 18 d of age (d 0 of the experiment) were catheterized via the jugular vein, weighed, and assigned to either a ghrelin (n = 12) or saline (control; n = 12) infusion group. Initial pig BW did not differ between treatments (7.87+/-0.39 vs. 7.92+/-0.35 kg for ghrelin and control treatments, respectively). Pig BW and feed intakes were measured once daily throughout the experiment. Starting on d 1, the ghrelin pigs were intravenously infused three times daily for 5 d with 2 microg/kg BW of human ghrelin, and the control pigs were similarly infused with saline. Activity observations and blood samples were taken at -15, 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240, and 480 min relative to the first infusion and then three times daily (0800, 1600, and 2400) for 8 d. Weight gain during the 5-d infusion period was greater by the ghrelin than by control pigs (0.57+/-0.10 vs. 0.21+/-0.13 kg, respectively; P < 0.04); however, there was no increase in feed intake. During two behavioral observation periods, more pigs in the ghrelin treatment were observed eating compared with control pigs (P < 0.05). The initial infusion of exogenous ghrelin increased serum ghrelin, GH, insulin, and cortisol concentrations (P < 0.05). Endogenous serum ghrelin increased from d 1 to 8 of the experiment in control animals (P < 0.05). Serum IGF-I initially fell in both treatment groups from d 1 to 2 (P < 0.05) but then increased from d 5 to 8 (P < 0.05). Peripheral concentrations of glucose in the ghrelin pigs were greater on d 2, 3, 7, and 8 than on d 1 (P < or = 0.05). In both treatment groups, peripheral concentrations of leptin increased from d 7 to 8, and cortisol decreased from d 1 to 5 of the experiment. These observations provide evidence that ghrelin may positively influence weight gain and concomitantly increase GH, insulin, and cortisol secretion in weaned pigs.Journal of Animal Science 08/2004; 82(7):1957-66. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ovariectomized gilts were either placed on full feed (FF) or restricted to one-third of the full feed amount (RST) for 7 days. Blood samples were taken through jugular catheters every 15 min for 4 h at the end of the 7-day period. Then dietary treatments were reversed and 7 days later samples were taken as before. Serum concentrations of leptin, insulin and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by radioimmunoassay. LH pulse frequency and mean serum leptin and insulin concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in RST than FF gilts. Reversal of treatment reversed the patterns of hormone secretion. These results confirm previous observations that feed restriction can inhibit pulsatile LH secretion and also decrease leptin and insulin secretion.Domestic Animal Endocrinology 05/2002; 22(2):73-80. · 2.38 Impact Factor