Prevalence of radiographic detectable intervertebral disc calcifications in Dachshunds surgically treated for disc extrusion.

University Animal Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7040, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica (Impact Factor: 1). 01/2010; 52:24. DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-52-24
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An association between the occurrence of calcified discs, visible on radiographic examination (CDVR), and disc extrusions has been suggested in published literature over the past 10-20 years, mainly from Nordic countries. It has also been postulated that dogs without CDVR would not develop disc extrusions. Furthermore, inheritance of CDVR has been calculated and it has been postulated that, by selecting dogs for breeding with few, or no CDVR, the prevalence of disc extrusions in the Dachshund population may be reduced.
The prevalence of radiographic detectable intervertebral disc calcifications was calculated from one hundred surgeries for disc extrusion, performed in 95 Dachshunds, in order to determine if the disc causing clinically significant IVDD, had radiographic signs of calcification at the time of confirmed disc extrusion. Inclusion criteria, for each dog, included a complete physical, orthopedic and neurologic examination, radiographs of the entire vertebral column, a myelogram or magnetic resonance imaging examination indicating extradural spinal cord compression, and finally a surgical procedure confirming the diagnosis of a disc extrusion. In addition to descriptive statistics, age correlation with number of calcifications visible at radiographic examination and with CDVR at the surgery site was examined.
We found that disc extrusions occur as frequently in discs that are found to have radiographic evidence of calcification as those discs that do not have signs of radiographic calcification, and that IVDD (intervertebral disc disease) requiring surgery does occur in the absence of any calcified discs on radiographic examination. We found that calcified discs were more frequent in our Dachshund population compared to previous studies suggesting that disc calcification might be a serious risk factor for developing disc extrusion. Further studies are needed to show, conclusively, if selection of breeding dogs based on CDVR in the Dachshund will reduce the incidence of IVDD. The presence of the calcifications of intervertebral disc should be evaluated with caution, as only part of the calcifications will be detected and the real extent of the disc degeneration may be underestimated.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.
    Parasite 01/2014; 21:37. · 0.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe diagnostic findings, surgical technique, and outcome in 3 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) with a history of paraparesis.Study DesignCase series.AnimalsSkunks (n = 3) with paraparesis.Methods Neurologic examination revealed upper motor neuron disease (T2–L2) in 2 skunks and lower motor neuron disease (L3–S3) in 1 skunk. Diagnostic imaging included radiography, myelography, CT, and MRI and confirmed intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH) in each skunk. Because initial treatment with pain medication and cage rest did not result in lasting improvement, spinal surgery was performed.ResultsHemilaminectomy (2 skunks) and dorsal laminectomy (1 skunk) was performed with removal of extruded disk material. The skunks improved after surgery but all had minor residual neurologic deficits when examined at various times postoperatively.Conclusion Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation occurs in skunks, and must be included in the differential diagnosis of paraparesis.
    Veterinary Surgery 04/2014; · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intervertebral disc disease is a common, painful and debilitating neurological condition of dogs, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The Dachshund is particularly susceptible to this disorder. The goal of this article is not to duplicate previously published reviews on canine intervertebral disc degeneration and degenerative diseases. Rather, the aims are three-fold: (1) to reflect on selected clinical and pathophysiological aspects of intervertebral disc degeneration and disc disease that are pertinent to the Dachshund breed; (2) to review a radiographic spinal scoring scheme developed to reduce the prevalence of intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds; and (3) to suggest further areas of research to improve upon the currently established scoring scheme in an attempt to address this breed’s greatest health problem.
    The Veterinary Journal 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
Jun 5, 2014