Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures.
ABSTRACT Dislocation filtering in GaN by selective area growth through a nanoporous template is examined both by transmission electron microscopy and numerical modeling. These nanorods grow epitaxially from the (0001)-oriented GaN underlayer through the approximately 100 nm thick template and naturally terminate with hexagonal pyramid-shaped caps. It is demonstrated that for a certain window of geometric parameters a threading dislocation growing within a GaN nanorod is likely to be excluded by the strong image forces of the nearby free surfaces. Approximately 3000 nanorods were examined in cross-section, including growth through 50 and 80 nm diameter pores. The very few threading dislocations not filtered by the template turn toward a free surface within the nanorod, exiting less than 50 nm past the base of the template. The potential active region for light-emitting diode devices based on these nanorods would have been entirely free of threading dislocations for all samples examined. A greater than 2 orders of magnitude reduction in threading dislocation density can be surmised from a data set of this size. A finite element-based implementation of the eigenstrain model was employed to corroborate the experimentally observed data and examine a larger range of potential nanorod geometries, providing a simple map of the different regimes of dislocation filtering for this class of GaN nanorods. These results indicate that nanostructured semiconductor materials are effective at eliminating deleterious extended defects, as necessary to enhance the optoelectronic performance and device lifetimes compared to conventional planar heterostructures.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we demonstrate a scalable process for the precise position-controlled selective growth of GaN nanowire arrays by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using a pulsed-mode growth technique. The location, orientation, length, and diameter of each GaN nanowire are controlled via pulsed-mode growth parameters such as growth temperature and precursor injection and interruption durations. The diameter and length of each GaN nanowire are in the ranges of more than 240 nm and 250-1250 nm, respectively, with different vertical-to-lateral aspect ratios that depend on the growth temperature. Also, it is found that a higher growth temperature helps increase the vertical growth rate and reduces the lateral growth rate of GaN nanowire arrays. Furthermore, in the case of longer TMGa injection duration, the Ga-rich region allows the higher lateral growth rate of GaN nanostructures, which leads to a transition in the morphology from nanowires to a thin film, while in the case of longer NH<sub>3</sub> injection duration, the surface morphology changes from nanowires to pyramidal structures. In addition, the surface structure can also be controlled by varying the precursor interruption duration. Finally, we report and discuss a growth model for GaN nanowire arrays under pulsed-mode MOCVD growth.CrystEngComm 01/2014; 16(11):2273-2282. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This work proposes a systematic study on the elastic relaxation in 3D epitaxial nanoisland with strain-dependent surface stress effect.•The analytical methodology is formulated for general anisotropic nanostructures with general geometries.•An example of a copper cuboid is provided to demonstrate how the finite size and surface property of the nanoisland would influence the elastic relaxation.Journal of Crystal Growth 01/2015; 410. · 1.69 Impact Factor
- Philosophical Magazine 03/2014; 94(11):1235-1248. · 1.43 Impact Factor