Eupafolin, a flavonoid isolated from Artemisia princeps, induced apoptosis in human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells
ABSTRACT Although eupafolin, a flavone found in Artemisia princeps Pampanini, has been shown to inhibit the growth of several human cancer cells, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic activities of eupafolin in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. It was found that eupafolin induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and the accumulation of positive cells for annexin V. In addition, eupafolin triggered the activations of caspases-3, -6, -7, -8, and -9 and the cleavages of their substrates, such as, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and lamin A/C. Furthermore, treatment with eupafolin resulted in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), increased the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and altered the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins. Interestingly, caspase-8, an initiator caspase, was activated after the loss of DeltaPsi(m) and the activations of caspases-3 and -9. Moreover, treatment with z-DEVD-fmk (a specific caspase-3 inhibitor) and the overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented eupafolin-stimulated caspase-8 activation. Altogether, these results suggest that the eupafolin-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells is mediated by caspase-dependent pathways, involving caspases-3, -9, and -8, which are initiated by the Bcl-2-dependent loss of DeltaPsi(m).
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ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation is an underlying risk factor of colon cancer, and NF-κB plays a critical role in the development of inflammation-associated colon cancer in an AOM/DSS mouse model. The aim of this study was to determine whether the standardized ethanol extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal (EAPP) is effective at preventing inflammation-associated colon cancer, and if so, to identify the signaling pathways involved. In the present study, protective efficacy of EAPP on tumor formation and the infiltrations of monocytes and macrophages in colons of an AOM/DSS mouse model were evaluated. It was found that colitis and tumor burdens showed statistically meaningful improvements after EAPP administration. Furthermore, these improvements were accompanied by a reduction in NF-κB activity and in the levels of NF-κB-dependent pro-survival proteins, that is, survivin, cFLIP, XIAP, and Bcl-2. In vitro, EAPP significantly reduced NF-κB activation and the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 mRNA and pro-survival proteins in HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, EAPP caused caspase-dependent apoptosis. Based on these results, the authors suggest EAPP suppresses inflammatory responses and induces apoptosis partly via NF-κB inactivation, and that EAPP could be useful for the prevention of colitis-associated tumorigenesis.Food and Chemical Toxicology 11/2014; 75. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.11.007 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production associated with increased COX-2 expression in Hs68 cells. This effect was blocked by eupafolin, TLR-4 antibody, antioxidants (APO and NAC), as well as inhibitors, including U0126 (ERK1/2), SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and Tanshinone IIA (AP-1). In gene regulation level, qPCR and promoter assays revealed that COX-2 expression was attenuated by eupafolin. In addition, eupafolin also ameliorated LPS-induced p47 phox activation, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. Moreover, pretreatment with eupafolin and APO led to reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Further, eupafolin attenuated LPS-induced increase in AP-1 transcription factor binding activity as well as the increase in the phosphorylation of c-jun and c-fos. In vivo studies have shown that in dermal fibroblasts of LPS treated mice, eupafolin exerted anti-inflammation effects by decreasing COX-2 protein levels. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of eupafolin that involved inhibition of LPS-induced ROS generation, suppression of MAPKs phosphorylation, diminished DNA binding activity of AP-1 and attenuated COX-2 expression leading to reduced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our results demonstrate that eupafolin may be used to treat inflammatory responses associated with dermatologic diseases.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 06/2014; 279(2). DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2014.06.012 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Artemisia princeps Pampanini is widely used in Eastern traditional medicine for the treatment of circulatory disorders, such as, dysmenorrhea, hematuria, hemorrhoids, and inflammation, and is also used to treat chronic conditions, such as, cancers, ulcers, and digestive disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a standardized flavonoid-rich fraction of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal (FRAP) on the induction of apoptosis and the molecular mechanism involved in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Human cervical cancer HeLa cells were treated with FRAP and apoptosis was detected by cell morphologic observation, annexin-V-PI staning and western blot analysis on the expression of protein associated with cell death. FRAP led to the cleavages of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in HeLa cells. Caspase-3 inhibitor (z-DEVD-fmk), caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk), caspase-9 inhibitor (z-LEHD), and broad caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) significantly suppressed the FRAP-induced accumulation of annexin V positive cells. Furthermore, it was found that FRAP caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Furthermore, the overexpression of Bcl-xL significantly prevented FRAP-induced apoptosis, MMP changes, and the activations of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Interestingly, pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor significantly reduced the FRAP-induced activation of caspase-3 but not that of caspase-9, whereas the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, markedly attenuated the FRAP-induced activation of caspase-8. In BALB/c(nu/nu) mice bearing a HeLa xenograft, FRAP dosed at 25 or 50mg/kg significantly inhibited tumor growth. Our results indicate caspase-mediated activation of the mitochondrial death pathway plays a critical role in the FRAP-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and that FRAP inhibits the in vivo tumor growth of HeLa xenograft mice.Journal of ethnopharmacology 03/2012; 141(1):460-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.011 · 2.94 Impact Factor