Carcinoids are heterogeneous neuroendocrine tumors with malignant potential. The rectum is the third most common location for gastrointestinal carcinoids. We assessed the clinicopathological characteristics of rectal carcinoids.
A retrospective study of 203 patients treated for rectal carcinoids at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea from 1991 to 2007.
The patients were on average 51 (18-83) years old. The male-to-female ratio was 1.48:1. Over half (62.1%) of the patients were asymptomatic. The most frequent symptoms in the symptomatic patients were abdominal pain (11.1%) and hematochezia (10.7%). Local excision was applied to 92.1%, low anterior resection to 4.9%, and biopsy only to 3.0% of total patients. Initially, 4.4% presented with distant metastasis. Distant metastasis rates for tumors < or =1 cm, >1 to < or =2 cm, and >2 cm were 1.7% (3/177), 15.0% (3/20), and 50.0% (3/6), respectively. In the follow-up period, three patients showed recurrences. The size, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and T and N stages were associated with distant metastasis. The overall 5-year survival rate was 94.0%. The TNM stage and presence of lymphovascular invasion were associated with lower survival.
The chance that a rectal carcinoid will develop distant metastases increases as the tumor increases in size, lymphovascular invasion or perineural invasion is present, and T and N stages increase. The TNM stage and presence of lymphovascular invasion were associated with lower survival. Treatment plan should be chosen carefully considering above factors.
"Approximately 5-20% of all gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are localized in the rectum [3, 7]. In 50% the diagnosis of a rectal NEN is made upon routine endoscopy for colorectal cancer screening . More frequent usage of colonoscopic screening programs might explain the increasing incidence in recent years. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) have frequently been described in patients with lung or breast cancer. However, some reports also described a correlation to carcinoid tumors, probably triggered via the excessive release of hormones.
We report the case of a 40-year-old woman that was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) of the rectum and multiple synchronous liver metastases ten years ago. She initially responded well to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), resulting in prolonged disease stabilization. However, ten years after initial diagnosis the patient developed unspecific neurological symptoms that could not be classified by standard neurological diagnostic work-up. Special laboratory analysis revealed a high titer of anti-Ri (ANNA-2), a well-characterized antibody that is associated with paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes. The patient’s symptoms improved markedly after a 5-day-course of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Ri-positive PNS in a patient with hormone-negative rectal NEN.
PNS can complicate the patient’s clinical course, response to treatment, impact prognosis and even be interpreted as metastatic spread. However, owing to their rarity, the knowledge of these syndromes is very helpful in order to be able to provide evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
BMC Cancer 09/2014; 14(1):691. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-691 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the growing volume of screening colonoscopies, the incidence of rectal carcinoids and the number of endoscopic resections for rectal carcinoids are also increasing. However, the prognosis including recurrence and metachronous lesions after endoscopic resection is unclear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of colorectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is rising in developed countries primarily as a result of increased incidental detection by endoscopy and probably also due to a more adequate diagnosis according to the WHO classification. Less than 1% of colorectal NETs produce serotonin so that such tumors are practically never associated with a hormonal carcinoid syndrome. An exact clinico-pathological staging is of paramount importance for the therapeutic strategy and comprises the classification of the tumor type (well or poorly differentiated) and the assessment of established prognostic risk factors (depth of infiltration, vascular invasion, lymph node and distant metastases). Poorly differentiated colorectal NETs often present in an advanced, metastatic state, where surgical therapy is basically palliative. Well-differentiated tumors larger than 2 cm have a high risk of metastatic spread and should be treated as adenocarcinomas by radical oncological surgical resection. This applies to the majority of colon NETs. Tumors smaller than 1 cm, mainly locacted in the rectum, only rarely metastasize and are usually accessible for endoscopic treatment or transanal local surgery. Tumors between 1 and 2 cm in size have an uncertain prognosis and additional risk factors and co-morbidities of the patient have to be considered for a suitable, multidisciplinary therapeutic decision.
Der Chirurg 06/2011; 82(7):607-11. · 0.57 Impact Factor
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