Article

Hydrocortisone supplementation enhances hemodynamic stability in brain-dead patients.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.
Anesthesiology (Impact Factor: 6.17). 05/2010; 112(5):1204-10. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181d4f34d
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hemodynamic instability is frequent in brain-dead patients and may result, in part, from absolute or relative adrenal insufficiency. Corticosteroid supplementation is widely used to restore hemodynamic stability in septic shock and to reduce the time of shock resolution. The authors verified that supplementation with hydrocortisone may enhance hemodynamic stability in brain-dead patients.
All consecutive brain-dead patients with hypotension requiring vasopressor agents were included in this single-center noninterventional clinical observation study. Assessment of baseline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated plasma cortisol concentrations was performed. Immediately after, patients were systematically treated with a single intravenous injection of hydrocortisone (50 mg), and norepinephrine administration was adjusted every 15 min to maintain mean arterial pressure between 65 and 90 mmHg. Adrenal insufficiency was defined as baseline plasma cortisol concentration less than 15 microg/dl and/or delta plasma cortisol concentration less than 9 microg/dl. Patients were considered as ACTH responders when delta cortisol concentration was more than 9 microg/dl 30 min after ACTH injection.
Among the 31 patients included, the incidence of adrenal insufficiency was 87% [95% CI, 70-96%]. A significant (> or =30%) decrease in norepinephrine dose was obtained 180 min after hydrocortisone injection in 18 (59%) patients, from 0.31 [0.16-0.44] microg . kg(-1) . min(-1) to 0.18 [0.10-0.24] microg . kg(-1) . min(-1) (P < 0.01). The incidence of hemodynamic response was greater in ACTH nonresponders than in ACTH responders: 86% versus 50%, respectively, P < 0.05.
Adrenal insufficiency with hemodynamic instability is frequent in brain-dead patients. After ACTH stimulation testing and hydrocortisone infusion, hemodynamic stability is enhanced especially in patients with true adrenal nonfunction.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
154 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review discusses concepts and treatments associated with the most clinically relevant areas of acute endocrine dysfunction amongst patients with common diseases in neuroscience intensive care units (Neuro ICUs). We highlight the following points:• While a thorough work-up for hyponatremia when it is present is always warranted, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients who are in a time window concerning for cerebral vasospasm and who are hyponatremic with high urine output are generally thought to have cerebral salt wasting. These patients are typically treated with a combination of continuous hypertonic saline infusion and fludrocortisone.• Diabetes insipidus (DI) is often seen in patients fulfilling death by neurological criteria, as well as in patients with recent pituitary surgery and less often in SAH and traumatic brain injury patients who are not brain dead. Patients with DI in the Neuro ICU often cannot drink to thirst and may require a combination of desmopression/vasopressin administration, aggressive fluid repletion, and serum sodium monitoring.• Diagnosing adrenal insufficiency immediately following pituitary injury is complicated by the fact that the expected atrophy of the adrenal glands, due to lack of a stimulus from pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone, may take up to 6 weeks to develop. Cosyntropin testing can be falsely normal during this period.• Both hyperglycemia (glucose >200 mg/dL) and hypoglycemia (glucose <50 mg/dL) are strongly associated with neurological morbidity and mortality in ICUs and should be avoided. Glucose concentrations between 120-160 mg/dL can serve as a reasonable target for insulin infusion protocols.• There is no data to suggest that treatment of abnormal thyroid function tests in nonthyroidal illness syndrome/sick euthyroid leads to benefits in either mortality or morbidity. True myxedema coma is a rare clinical diagnosis that is treated with intravenous levothyroxine accompanied by stress-dose steroids.
    Current Treatment Options in Neurology 02/2014; 16(2):271. · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a complex physiological process responsible for delayed renal function or primary graft non-function, explicitly when kidney allograft are issued from expanded criteria donor. The purpose of this review is to detail the detrimental phenomenons altering kidney allograft's integrity in brain dead donor, therefore suggesting pharmacological interventions aiming to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injuries and improving transplantation outcome. This ischemia-reperfusion phenomenon must therefore be anticipated through the whole procedure starting at the stage of conditioning of the potential donor. Hormonal and haemodynamic consequences of brain death modify perfusion and oxygenation conditions of the organs Thus, after describing the autonomic, metabolic, endocrine and chemokine storm occurring during brain death, the authors focus on strategies to prevent hemodynamic instability in the donor and to limit the consequences of hormonal and immunological changes on organs that will eventually be transplanted.
    Progrès en Urologie 06/2014; 24S1:S26-S30. · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Circulatory failure during brain death organ donor resuscitation is a problem that compromises recovery of organs. Combined administration of steroid, thyroxine and vasopressin has been proposed to optimize the management of brain deceased donors before recovery of organs. However the single administration of hydrocortisone has not been rigorously evaluated in any trial.
    Critical care (London, England) 07/2014; 18(4):R158. · 5.04 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
17 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014