Rag2-/- gamma-chain-/- mice as hosts for human vessel transplantation and allogeneic human leukocyte reconstitution.
ABSTRACT Rodent models are a very helpful tool to investigate immunological mechanisms in allograft rejection. The aim of this study was to compare two different immunodeficient recipients in a humanized mouse model of arterial xenotransplantation in terms of reconstitution of the human immune system and rejection of the arterial graft.
Side branches of human mammary artery were transplanted as infrarenal aortic interposition grafts into C.B-17-SCID beige and C57BL/6-Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) recipients. 7days after surgery mice were reconstituted with 5x10(7) human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hu PBMCs) and 30days after reconstitution mice were sacrificed and histologic analysis was performed. Peripheral blood and splenocytes were investigated by FACS and ELISA analysis to ensure engraftment of human CD45(+) cells.
Transplant arteriosclerosis developed in non-PBMC-reconstituted C.B-17-SCID beige mice (intimal proliferation: 36.31+/-4.37%), but significantly less in C57BL/6-Rag2(-/-) gammac(-/-) recipients (intimal proliferation: 12.26+/-5.21%). After reconstitution with 5x10(7) unfractionated human PBMCs both mouse strains showed intima proliferation 30days after reconstitution (C.B-17-SCID beige: 28.49+/-7.95% and C57BL/6-Rag2(-/-) gammac(-/-): 44.58+/-11.08%). Whereas only very few human CD45(+) cells were found in mouse blood and spleen of C.B-17-SCID beige mice, C57BL/6-Rag2(-/-) gammac(-/-) mice revealed a reliable reconstitution. In addition, levels of human IgG and IgM within the peripheral blood were markedly higher in C57BL/6-Rag2(-/-) gammac(-/-) recipients.
In this study we can show, that the use of C57BL/6-Rag2(-/-) gammac(-/-) mice may be advantageous compared to C.B-17-SCID beige recipients in a humanized mouse model of vessel transplantation.
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ABSTRACT: Coimplantation of small fragments of human fetal thymus and fetal liver into immunodeficient SCID mice resulted in the formation of a unique structure (Thy/Liv). Thereafter, the SCID-hu mice showed reproducible and long-term reconstitution of human hematopoietic activity. For periods lasting 5-11 mo after transplantation, active T lymphopoiesis was observed inside the grafts and cells that were negative for T cell markers were found to have colony-forming units for granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E) activity in the methylcellulose colony assay. In addition, structures similar to normal human bone marrow were observed inside the Thy/Liv grafts, consisting of blast cells, mature and immature forms of myelomonocytic cells, and megakaryocytes. These data indicate long-term maintenance, in vivo, of human progenitor cells for the T lymphoid, myelomonocytic, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages. The role of the implanted fetal liver fragments was analyzed using HLA-mismatched Thy/Liv implants. The HLA type of the liver donor was found on T cells and macrophages in the graft. In addition, cells grown in the methylcellulose colony assay and cells in a bone marrow-like structure, the "thymic isle," expressed the HLA type of the liver donor. Thus, the Thy/Liv implants provided a microenvironment in which to follow human hematopoietic progenitor cells for multiple lineages. The formation of the Thy/Liv structures also results in a continuous source of human T cells in the peripheral circulation of the SCID-hu mouse. Though present for 5-11 mo, these cells did not engage in a xenograft (graft-versus-host) reaction. This animal model, the first in which multilineage human hematopoietic activity is maintained for long periods of time, should be useful for the analysis of human hematopoiesis in vivo.Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/1990; 172(4):1055-63. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunodeficient mice bearing components of a human immune system present a novel approach for studying human immune responses. We investigated the number, phenotype, developmental kinetics, and function of developing human immune cells following transfer of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) preparations originating from second trimester human fetal liver (HFL), umbilical cord blood (UCB), or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized adult blood (G-CSF-AB) delivered via intrahepatic injection into sublethally irradiated neonatal NOD-scid/gammac(-/-), Balb/c-Rag1(-/-)gammac(-/-), and C.B-17-scid/bg mice. HFL and UCB HSC provided the greatest number and breadth of developing cells. NOD-scid/gammac(-/-) and Balb/c-Rag1(-/-)gammac(-/-) harbored human B and dendritic cells as well as human platelets in peripheral blood, whereas NOD-scid/gammac(-/-) mice harbored higher levels of human T cells. NOD-scid/gammac(-/-) mice engrafted with HFL CD34(+) HSC demonstrated human immunological competence evidenced by white pulp expansion and increases in total human immunoglobulin following immunization with T-dependent antigens and delayed-type hypersensitivity-infiltrating leukocytes in response to antigenic challenge. In conclusion, we describe an encouraging base system for studying human hematopoietic lineage development and function utilizing human HFL or UCB HSC-engrafted NOD-scid/gammac(-/-) mice that is well suited for future studies toward the development of a fully competent humanized mouse model.Human immunology 07/2009; 70(10):790-802. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The degree of transplant arteriosclerosis in murine cardiac allografts is difficult to assess. Aortic allografts represent an alternative model for evaluating the impact of novel transplant strategies on transplant arteriosclerosis in which the vascular changes can be quantified easily. However, it remains controversial as to whether vascular lesions seen in this model are equivalent to those that develop in solid-organ transplants. The aim of this study was to develop a model of combined cardiac and aortic transplantation to allow more precise quantification of transplant arteriosclerosis and to establish a correlation between the lesions that develop in the 2 types of graft. CBA (H2(k)) recipients received a C57BL/10 (H2(b)) cervical cardiac allograft on Day 0 and a C57BL/10 (H2(b)) abdominal aortic allograft on Day 1. Recipients were treated with anti-CD154 mAb (MR1) on Days 0, 2, and 4. We performed histology and morphometric measurements for both grafts 30 days after transplantation. We observed significant intimal proliferation in both the cervical cardiac and abdominal aortic allografts from recipients treated with anti-CD154 mAb (heart, 64% +/- 9%; aorta, 67% +/- 8%; n = 5). Abdominal aortic grafts transplanted alone into anti-CD154-treated recipients developed a degree of transplant arteriosclerosis equivalent to that seen in the aortic grafts of the combined group (aorta alone, 68% +/- 9%, vs aorta + heart, 67% +/- 8%; n = 5). This combined cardiac and aortic transplant model permitted quantitative assessment of transplant arteriosclerosis while monitoring graft survival by cardiac palpation. Furthermore, development of transplant arteriosclerosis was equivalent in abdominal aortic allografts either in the presence or absence of an additional solid- organ transplant.The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 12/2000; 19(11):1039-46. · 5.11 Impact Factor