Indirect effect of IGF2 intron3 g.3072G>A mutation on prolificacy in sows.
ABSTRACT A QTL located in the paternally expressed insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is known to increase muscle growth and reduce fat deposition in pigs. This makes the QTL in IGF2 a good marker for use in pig breeding programmes. However, care has to be taken as it is postulated that increased leanness and lowered fat deposition may have a negative effect on the prolificacy and longevity of sows. Selection of sire and dam lines for different alleles of the mutation in the paternally imprinted IGF2 gene could actually provide a solution to this problem. Therefore, in this study, the effect of the IGF2 QTL on prolificacy-related traits in sows was investigated. It was found that the paternal IGF2 wild-type allele was associated with higher reproduction performance in the sow. Moreover, it was also examined whether the difference in prolificacy in sows could be a consequence of differential IGF2 expression in the ovarian follicles of the sow or whether it is mainly a secondary effect caused by differences in fatness traits. Therefore, IGF2 expression was measured in follicles of different sizes from sows with different genotypes for the paternal IGF2 allele. It was observed that, however, while the size of the follicles was associated with follicular IGF2 expression level, the IGF2 genotype was not. It could be concluded that the difference in prolificacy of sows with a different paternal IGF2 genotype could be a secondary effect, resulting from differences in fat deposition.
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ABSTRACT: A decrease in insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (BP) amount occurs within the follicular fluid of dominant ovarian follicles. At the same time, concentrations of follicular fluid IGF-I do not change. The mRNA for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3, in dominant and subordinate follicles were measured to determine if changes in IGF or IGFBP gene expression are associated with follicular dominance. Heifers were ovariectomized during a follicular wave, either during early-dominance (emerging dominant follicle, 9 mm diameter) or mid-dominance (established dominant follicle, 14-16 mm diameter). Follicles were classified as either dominant (DF), subordinate (SF), or not-recruited (NRF; small antral follicles). mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization and measured by image analyses. The IGF-I mRNA (granulosa cells) was greatest in DF and increased in DF, SF, and NRF from early- to mid-dominance. Likewise, IGF-II mRNA (theca cells) was greatest in DF compared with SF or NRF. The IGFBP-2 mRNA (granulosa cells), however, was nearly undetectable in DF, whereas adjacent SF expressed abundant IGFBP-2 mRNA. The NRF were not uniform in their IGFBP-2 expression because only 5 of 13 NRF had IGFBP-2 mRNA. The IGFBP-3 mRNA (granulosa cells) was found only in two NRF, suggesting that local synthesis is not a predominant source of follicular fluid IGFBP-3. These data show that changes in gene expression for IGFBP-2 are opposite to those for IGF-I or IGF-II. Increased IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA and decreased IGFBP-2 mRNA within the DF may be one mechanism leading to follicular dominance. The opposite pattern of IGFBP-2 gene expression in SF and some NRF may lead to follicular atresia.Domestic Animal Endocrinology 02/1998; 15(1):55-63. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have direct effects on cultured ovarian cells. These effects include stimulation of granulosa cell mitogenesis, granulosa and luteal cell progesterone production, and thecal cell androgen production and appear similar among species. However, species differences exist with regard to insulin and IGF-I effects on granulosa cell estradiol production. In addition to endocrine effects of insulin and IGFs, IGFs are produced by granulosa, thecal, and luteal cells, allowing for an intraovarian autocrine and paracrine system. Granulosa, thecal, and luteal cells contain receptors for insulin and IGFs, and these receptors appear to mediate the effects of insulin and IGFs. Adding to the complexity of the regulatory role of IGFs is the presence of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) within the ovary. These IGFBPs are produced by granulosa, thecal, and luteal cells, and their production is hormonally regulated. Evidence for a coherent mechanism by which insulin, IGFs, and IGFBPs interact and regulate ovarian function in vivo has yet to be found.Domestic Animal Endocrinology 08/1995; 12(3):223-45. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study and short review was to present evidence that growth hormone (GH), locally produced insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) may have an important role in the control of ovarian function. There is clear evidence for a distinct GH-receptor mRNA expression and protein production in follicles (oocytes and granulosa-cumulus cells) and corpus luteum (CL). In hypophysectomized ewes, GH and LH are necessary for normal CL development. IGF-1 mRNA in the follicles is expressed in theca interstitial cells (TIC) and granulosa cells (GC) with already higher levels in the TIC before follicle selection. In contrast, IGF-2 is mainly expressed in the TIC. The IGFR-1 mRNA is expressed in both the TIC and GC, with increasing levels in GC during the final development of dominant follicles. IGF-1 is a very potent stimulator of progesterone and oxytocin release in GC. IGFBP-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -6 have been isolated from follicular fluid or ovarian tissue. Studies indicate that IGFBP expression and production in the developing follicle is dependent on both cell type and follicle size and is regulated by IGF-1 and gonadotropins. The highest expression of IGF-1 and IGFR-1 mRNA was demonstrated during the early luteal phase. Distinct receptors for IGF-1 and IGF-2 were present in CL membrane preparations at all stages investigated. Intense immunostaining for IGF-1 was observed mainly in bovine large and small luteal cells and in a limited number of endothelial cells. In contrast, IGF-2 protein was localized in perivascular fibroblast and pericytes of the capillaries. With the use of a microdialysis system, we found that in vitro and in vivo IGF-1, IGF-2, and GH stimulated the release of progesterone in cultures of luteal cells or intact tissues. In conclusion, there is clear evidence for a central role of the IGFs, IGFBPs, and GH in follicular development and CL function.Domestic Animal Endocrinology 11/1999; 17(2-3):279-85. · 2.38 Impact Factor