Indirect effect of IGF2 intron3 g.3072G>A mutation on prolificacy in sows.
ABSTRACT A QTL located in the paternally expressed insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is known to increase muscle growth and reduce fat deposition in pigs. This makes the QTL in IGF2 a good marker for use in pig breeding programmes. However, care has to be taken as it is postulated that increased leanness and lowered fat deposition may have a negative effect on the prolificacy and longevity of sows. Selection of sire and dam lines for different alleles of the mutation in the paternally imprinted IGF2 gene could actually provide a solution to this problem. Therefore, in this study, the effect of the IGF2 QTL on prolificacy-related traits in sows was investigated. It was found that the paternal IGF2 wild-type allele was associated with higher reproduction performance in the sow. Moreover, it was also examined whether the difference in prolificacy in sows could be a consequence of differential IGF2 expression in the ovarian follicles of the sow or whether it is mainly a secondary effect caused by differences in fatness traits. Therefore, IGF2 expression was measured in follicles of different sizes from sows with different genotypes for the paternal IGF2 allele. It was observed that, however, while the size of the follicles was associated with follicular IGF2 expression level, the IGF2 genotype was not. It could be concluded that the difference in prolificacy of sows with a different paternal IGF2 genotype could be a secondary effect, resulting from differences in fat deposition.
SourceAvailable from: Fabiana Fernandes Bressan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Animal breeders have made widespread use of assisted reproductive technologies to accelerate genetic improvement programs aimed at obtaining more, better and cheaper food products. Selection approaches have traditionally focused on Mendel's laws of inheritance using parental phenotypic characteristics and quantitative genetics approaches to choose the best parents for the next generation, regardless of their gender. However, apart from contributing DNA sequence variants, male and female gametes carry parental-specific epigenetic marks that play key roles during pre- and post-natal development and growth of the offspring. We herein review the epigenetic anomalies that are associated with artificial reproductive technologies in current use in animal breeding programs. For instance, we demonstrate that bovine embryos and fetuses derived by in vitro culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer show epigenetic anomalies in the differentially methylated regions controlling the expression of some imprinted genes. Although these genomic imprinting errors are undetected in the somatic tissues after birth, further research is warranted to examine potential germ cell transmission of epimutations and the potential risks of reproducing cattle using artificial reproductive technologies.Frontiers in Genetics 01/2015; 6:58. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2015.00058
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated whether a selection programme based on boar genetic evaluation obtained with a classical BLUP animal model can change allele frequencies in a pig population. All Italian Large White boars born from 1992 to 2012 with estimated breeding value reliability >0.85 (n = 200) were selected among all boars of this breed. Boars were genotyped with markers in major genes (IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A, MC4R p.D298N, VRTN PRE1 insertion, PRKAG3 p.I199V and FTO g.276T>G). Genotyping data were analysed grouping boars in eight classes according to their year of birth. To evaluate the influence of time on allele frequencies of the genotyped markers, multinomial logistic regression models were computed. Four of five polymorphic sites (IGF2, MC4R, VRTN and FTO) showed significant (p < 0.01) changes in allele frequencies over time due to a progressive and continuous increase of one allele (associated with higher lean meat content, higher average daily gain and favourable feed: gain ratio) and, consequently, decrease of the other one, following the directional selection of the selection programme of this pig breed. The retrospective analysis that was carried out in Italian Large White boars suggests that selection based on methodologies assuming the infinitesimal model is able to modify in a quite short period of time allele frequencies in major genes, increasing the frequency of alleles explaining a relevant (non-infinitesimal) fraction of the overall genetic variability for production traits. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/jbg.12127 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most economically significant disease impacting pig production in North America, Europe, and Asia, causing reproductive losses such as increased rates stillbirth and mummified piglets. The objective of this study was to explore the genetic basis of host response to the PRRS virus (PRRSV) in a commercial multiplier sow herd before and after a PRRS outbreak, using antibody response and reproductive traits. Reproductive data comprising number born alive (NBA), number alive at 24h (NA24), number stillborn (NSB), number born mummified (NBM), proportion born dead (PBD), number born dead (NBD), number weaned (NW), and number mortalities through weaning (MW) of 5,227 litters from 1,967 purebred Landrace sows, were used along with a pedigree comprising 2,995 pigs. The PRRS outbreak date was estimated from rolling averages of farrowing traits and used to split the data in a pre-PRRS phase and a PRRS phase. All 641 sows in the herd during the outbreak were blood sampled 46 days after the estimated outbreak date, and were tested for anti-PRRSV IgG using ELISA (sample-to-positive [S/P] ratio). Genetic parameters of traits were estimated separately for the pre-PRRS and PRRS phase data sets. Sows were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using method Bayes-B. Heritability estimates for reproductive traits ranged from 0.01 (NBM) to 0.12 (NSB), and from 0.01 (MW) to 0.12 (NBD) for the pre-PRRS and PRRS phases, respectively. S/P ratio had heritability (0.45) and strong genetic correlations with most traits, ranging from -0.72 (NBM) to 0.73 (NBA). In the pre-PRRS phase, regions associated with NSB and PBD explained 1.6% and 3% of the genetic variance, respectively. In the PRRS phase, regions associated with NBD, NSB, and S/P ratio explained 0.8%, 11%, and 50.6% of the genetic variance, respectively. For S/P ratio, two regions on SSC7 separated by 100 Mb explained 40% of the genetic variation, including a region encompassing the Major Histocompatibility Complex, which explained 25% of the genetic variance. These results indicate a significant genomic component associated with PRRSV antibody response and NSB in this dataset. Also, the high heritability and genetic correlation estimates for S/P ratio during the PRRS phase suggest that S/P ratio could be used as an indicator of the impact of PRRS on reproductive traits.Journal of Animal Science 05/2014; 92(7). DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-7821 · 1.92 Impact Factor