Minireview: Nuclear hormone receptor 4A signaling: implications for metabolic disease.
ABSTRACT Numerous members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily have been demonstrated to regulate metabolic function in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. This review brings together recent studies that have associated members of the NR superfamily, the orphan NR4A subgroup, with the regulation of metabolic function and disease. The orphan NR4A subgroup includes Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2), and Nor-1 (NR4A3). Expression of these receptors is induced in multiple tissues by a diverse range of stimuli, including stimuli associated with metabolic function, such as: β-adrenoceptor agonists, cold, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and thiazolidinediones. In vitro and in vivo gain- and loss-of-function studies in major metabolic tissues (including skeletal muscle, adipose, and liver cells and tissues) have associated the NR4A subgroup with specific aspects of lipid, carbohydrate, and energy homeostasis. Most excitingly, although these orphan receptors do not have known endogenous ligands, several small molecule agonists have recently been identified. The preliminary studies reviewed in this manuscript suggest that therapeutic exploitation of the NR4A subgroup may show utility against dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Article: Nuclear receptor Nr4a1 modulates both regulatory T-cell (Treg) differentiation and clonal deletion.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immature thymocytes expressing autoreactive T-cell receptors (TCR) can adopt differing cell fates: clonal deletion by apoptosis or deviation into alternative lineages such as FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). We revisited the role of the transcription factor Nr4a1 (Nur77), an immediate-early response gene induced by TCR engagement. Nr4a1KO mice show clear quantitative defects in antigen-induced clonal deletion. The impact of the Nr4a1 deletion is not enhanced by deletion of the proapoptotic factor Bim. In addition, Nr4a1 curtails initial differentiation into the Treg lineage in TCR transgenic mice and in nontransgenic mice. Transcriptional profiling of Nr4a1KO thymocytes under selection conditions reveals that Nr4a1 activates the transcription of several targets, consistent with these diverse actions: (i) Nr4a1 partakes in the induction of Bim after TCR triggering; (ii) perhaps paradoxically, Nr4a1 positively controls several transcripts of the Treg signature, in particular Ikzf2 and Tnfrsf9; (iii) consistent with its prosurvival and metabolic role in the liver, Nr4a1 is also required for the induction by TCR of a coordinated set of enzymes of the glycolytic and Krebs cycle pathways, which we propose may antagonize Treg selection as does activation of mTOR/Akt. Thus, Nr4a1 appears to act as a balancing molecule in fate determination at a critical juncture of T-cell differentiation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2012; 109(10):3891-6. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: The nuclear orphan receptor Nr4a2 induces Foxp3 and regulates differentiation of CD4+ T cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a central role in maintaining immune homoeostasis through various mechanisms. Although the Forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 defines the Treg cell lineage and functions, the molecular mechanisms of Foxp3 induction and maintenance remain elusive. Here we show that Foxp3 is one of the direct targets of Nr4a2. Nr4a2 binds to regulatory regions of Foxp3, where it mediates permissive histone modifications. Ectopic expression of Nr4a2 imparts Treg-like suppressive activity to naïve CD4(+) T cells by inducing Foxp3 and by repressing cytokine production, including interferon-γ and interleukin-2. Deletion of Nr4a2 in T cells attenuates induction of Tregs and causes aberrant induction of Th1, leading to the exacerbation of colitis. Nr4a2-deficeint Tregs are prone to lose Foxp3 expression and have attenuated suppressive ability both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, Nr4a2 has the ability to maintain T-cell homoeostasis by regulating induction, maintenance and suppressor functions of Tregs, and by repression of aberrant Th1 induction.Nature Communications 04/2011; 2:269. · 7.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat) for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53836. · 4.09 Impact Factor