Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5a Mediates Mammary Ductal Branching and Proliferation in the Nulliparous Mouse
ABSTRACT Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)5a is a critical regulator of mammary gland development. Previous studies have focused on Stat5a's role in the late pregnant and lactating gland, and although active Stat5a is detectable in mammary epithelial cells in virgin mice, little is known about its role during early mammary gland development. In this report, we compare mammary gland morphology in pubertal and adult nulliparous wild-type and Stat5a-/- mice. The Stat5a-null mammary glands exhibited defects in secondary and side branching, providing evidence that Stat5a regulates these processes. In addition, Stat5a-/- mammary glands displayed an attenuated proliferative response to pregnancy levels of estrogen plus progesterone (E+P), suggesting that it plays an important role in early pregnancy. Finally, we examined one potential mediator of Stat5a's effects, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Stat5a-/- mammary glands were defective in inducing RANKL in response to E+P treatment. In addition, regulation of several reported RANKL targets, including inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), cyclin D1, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Waf1/Cip1), was altered in Stat5a-/- mammary cells, suggesting that one or more of these proteins mediate the effects of Stat5a in E+P-treated mammary epithelial cells.
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ABSTRACT: The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, programed cell death and stromal reorganization to clear the differentiated milk-producing cells. Not surprisingly, the signaling pathways responsible for bringing about these changes in breast cells are often subverted during the process of tumorigenesis. The STAT family of proteins is involved in every stage of mammary gland development, and is also frequently implicated in breast tumorigenesis. While the roles of STAT3 and STAT5 during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis are well studied, others members, e.g. STAT1 and STAT6, have only recently been observed to play a role in mammary gland biology. Continued investigation into the STAT protein network in the mammary gland will likely yield new biomarkers and risk factors for breast cancer, and may also lead to novel prophylactic or therapeutic strategies against breast cancer.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 03/2013; 382(1). DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2013.03.014 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lineage commitment studies in mammary glands have focused on identifying cell populations that display stem or progenitor properties. However, the mechanisms that control cell fate have been incompletely explored. Herein we show that zinc finger protein 157 (Zfp157) is required to establish the balance between luminal alveolar pStat5- and Gata-3-expressing cells in the murine mammary gland. Using mice in which the zfp157 gene was disrupted, we found that alveologenesis was accelerated concomitantly with a dramatic skewing of the proportion of pStat5-expressing cells relative to Gata-3⁺ cells. This suppression of the Gata-3⁺ lineage was associated with increased expression of the inhibitor of helix-loop-helix protein Id2. Surprisingly, Gata-3 becomes dispensable in the absence of Zfp157, as mice deficient for both Zfp157 and Gata-3 lactate normally, although the glands display a mild epithelial dysplasia. These data suggest that the luminal alveolar compartment of the mammary gland is comprised of a number of distinct cell populations that, although interdependant, exhibit considerable cell fate plasticity.Genes & development 05/2012; 26(10):1086-97. DOI:10.1101/gad.184051.111 · 12.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: At face value there are clear and established roles for prolactin (PRL) in the regulation of mammary gland growth, lactogenesis, and galactopoiesis. These actions of PRL do not occur in isolation; rather, they are finely attuned to and coordinated with many local, reproductive, and metabolic events in the female. Hence, to understand PRL action at the level of the mammary gland is to understand the systemic and local contexts in which it acts and functions. Herein we review the functions of PRL, its receptors, and the pathways leading to the phenotypes it evokes within the mammary glands, including growth and lactation, across a variety of species. At one level, the actions of PRL are mediated by several PRL receptor (PRLR) isoforms, including its long form and various short PRLR variants that are generated by alternative splicing in a species- and tissue-dependent manner. In turn, these PRLR activate a variety of intracellular signaling cascades. We also focus on how PRL coordinates with other endocrine cues to impart its effects on the mammary glands, where the ovarian hormones can independently and substantially modulate PRL action. Many of these effects of PRL are also realized at the local level of the mammary gland, either through the autocrine or paracrine synthesis of a multitude of molecules and transcription factors or through its effects on adjacent supporting tissues, including the mammary vasculature. Taken together, it is clear that PRL directs a variety of mechanisms during growth and function of the mammary gland and is deserving of its classification as the master hormone.Journal of Animal Science 12/2011; 90(5):1674-86. DOI:10.2527/jas.2011-4682 · 1.92 Impact Factor