Cryptococcal meningitis in non-HIV-infected patients in a Chinese tertiary care hospital, 1997-2007.
ABSTRACT Information remains sparse about non-HIV patients with cryptococcal meningitis in the era of triazole therapy. Particularly of interest are the clinical manifestations and prognosis of the infection in these previously healthy patients. We retrospectively reviewed 154 non-HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis who presented in our hospital from 1997 to 2007. We compared the clinical features and outcomes between predisposed and otherwise healthy hosts. The number of cases per year showed a steady increase over time. The majority of patients were otherwise apparently healthy (103 patients, 66.9%) and predisposing factors were identified in only 51 (33.1%) patients. Corticosteroid medication accounted for the most common underlying factor in these cases (n = 21). Morbidity was appallingly high, with seizures in 28.6%, cranial nerves palsies in 51.5% and cerebral herniation in 19.5%. Despite these complications, overall mortality during 1 year was 28.7% (41/143), close to that reported from other centers with non-HIV patients. Death attributed to cryptococcosis occurred in 19.6% (28/143) patients with most receiving amphotericin B as a component of their initial therapy. Among surviving patients who had lumbar punctures at weeks 2 and 10, those given amphotericin B for initial therapy achieved higher rates of overall response than those receiving initial fluconazole therapy at either week 2 (84.4% of 96 patients vs. 33.3% of 24 patients, P <0.001) or week 10 (85.0% of 93 patients vs. 66.7% of 24 patients, P = 0.041). In multivariate analysis, coma, cerebral herniation, and initial antifungal therapy without amphotericin B were independently correlated with both increased overall and attributable mortality, while advanced age (>/= 60 years) was correlated with increased overall mortality only. Patients with apparently normal immune status were overall younger than those who were immunocompromised. In addition, previously healthy patients for whom diagnosis was delayed had more severe disease, experiencing more brain herniation, coma, seizures, hydrocephalus and more surgical shunt procedures. On the other hand, immunocompromised patients were more commonly found to have high fever and brain parenchymal involvement. However, both groups had a similar treatment response and 1-year survival.
Article: Association of Fcγ receptor IIB polymorphism with cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-uninfected Chinese patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As important regulators of the immune system, the human Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) have been demonstrated to play important roles in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify the association between FCGR polymorphisms and cryptococcal meningitis. In this case control genetic association study, we genotyped four functional polymorphisms in low-affinity FcγRs, including FCGR2A 131H/R, FCGR3A 158F/V, FCGR3B NA1/NA2, and FCGR2B 232I/T, in 117 patients with cryptococcal meningitis and 190 healthy controls by multiplex SNaPshot technology. Among the 117 patients with cryptococcal meningitis, 59 had predisposing factors. In patients with cryptococcal meningitis, the FCGR2B 232I/I genotype was over-presented (OR = 1.652, 95% CI [1.02-2.67]; P = 0.039) and the FCGR2B 232I/T genotype was under-presented (OR = 0.542, 95% CI [0.33-0.90]; P = 0.016) in comparison with control group. In cryptococcal meningitis patients without predisposing factors, FCGR2B 232I/I genotype was also more frequently detected (OR = 1.958, 95% CI [1.05-3.66]; P = 0.033), and the FCGR2B 232I/T genotype was also less frequently detected (OR = 0.467, 95% CI [0.24-0.91]; P = 0.023) than in controls. No significant difference was found among FCGR2A 131H/R, FCGR3A 158F/V, and FCGR3B NA1/NA2 genotype frequencies between patients and controls. We found for the first time associations between cryptococcal meningitis and FCGR2B 232I/T genotypes, which suggested that FcγRIIB might play an important role in the central nervous system infection by Cryptococcus in HIV-uninfected individuals.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42439. · 4.09 Impact Factor