Article

Methadone maintenance dosing guideline for opioid dependence, a literature review.

Department of Psychiatry, Emory University, School of Medicine, Decatur, GA 30033, USA.
Journal of Addictive Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.46). 01/2010; 29(1):1-14. DOI: 10.1080/10550880903436010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To date, methadone dosing is still an issue of debate and controversy among clinicians who are involved in methadone maintenance programs. The authors conducted a literature review to update clinicians about this issue and provide recommendations for proper methadone dosing. Studies eligible for inclusion in the review were retrieved from the PubMed database by searching for reports published between 1990 and September 2008 using the major medical subject headings Methadone (all fields) and dose. Only articles written in English were included. Additional reports were identified from the reference lists of retrieved articles and by manual review of the tables of contents of journals on drug of abuse included in the psychiatry and substance abuse subject category listing 2008 of the Journal Citation Reports. Abstracts of medical meetings were excluded. Twenty-four articles were included in the review. Twelve are randomized, controlled, or double-blind clinical trials, 10 are non-randomized and observational studies, and 2 are meta-analyses. Currently, the consensus is to have a goal for methadone dosing in the range of 60 to 100 mg daily. For patients who continue to use illicit opiates while prescribed this dose range, clinicians may consider doses greater than 100 mg daily. However, this is not the current consensus but rather is based on the limited promising data the authors have; it could be considered if the benefits outweigh the risks for some patients.

1 Follower
 · 
96 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To develop evidence-based practice guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of opioid abuse and dependence. An international task force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) developed these practice guidelines after a systematic review of the available evidence pertaining to the treatment of opioid dependence. On the basis of the evidence, the Task Force reached a consensus on practice recommendations, which are intended to be clinically and scientifically meaningful for physicians who treat adults with opioid dependence. The data used to develop these guidelines were extracted primarily from national treatment guidelines for opioid use disorders, as well as from meta-analyses, reviews, and publications of randomized clinical trials on the efficacy of pharmacological and other biological treatments for these disorders. Publications were identified by searching the MEDLINE database and the Cochrane Library. The literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, which was categorized into one of six levels (A-F). There is an excellent evidence base supporting the efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine or the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone for the treatment of opioid withdrawal, with clonidine and lofexidine as secondary or adjunctive medications. Opioid maintenance with methadone and buprenorphine is the best-studied and most effective treatment for opioid dependence, with heroin and naltrexone as second-line medications. There is enough high quality data to formulate evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of opioid abuse and dependence. This task force report provides evidence for the efficacy of a number of medications to treat opioid abuse and dependence, particularly the opioid agonists methadone or buprenorphine. These medications have great relevance for clinical practice.
    The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 04/2011; 12(3):160-87. DOI:10.3109/15622975.2011.561872 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The frequency of mood and anxiety disorders is elevated among individuals with a history of intravenous drug abuse and among those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and these disorders are associated with continued substance use despite treatment. The present study examined rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and recent heroin use, among HIV-infected and HIV-noninfected patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy. Participants were 160 (80 HIV-infected, 80 HIV-noninfected) methadone patients. Clinician-administered, semistructured interviews were used to identify unipolar and bipolar depression, and four major anxiety disorders (panic disorder with agoraphobia [PDA], generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], and social anxiety disorder [SAD]). Toxicology screens and self-reporting were used to assess heroin, cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol use over the past month. The entire sample met criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder other than substance dependence. Substantial proportions of participants met criteria for major depressive disorder (55.6%), bipolar I, bipolar II, or cyclothymia (6.4%), PDA (34.4%), GAD (22.5%), SAD (16.9%), and PTSD (34.4%). A greater proportion of HIV-infected participants met criteria for SAD (χ 2 = 5.03), and a greater proportion of HIV-noninfected participants met criteria for GAD (χ 2 = 5.39, P , 0.01). About 14% of participants continued to use heroin over the past month, a significantly greater proportion of whom were HIV-infected. In adjusted analyses, none of the mood or anxiety disorders emerged as significant predictors of recent heroin use, but being HIV-infected did. This study highlights the high rate of psychopathology and continued heroin use despite substance abuse treatment, and underscores the need for interventions that help mitigate these problems among methadone patients.
    Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine 01/2010; 2:49-57. DOI:10.2147/NBHIV.S12371