Sexual risk reduction among non-injection drug users: report of a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a sexual risk-reduction intervention targeting non-injection drug users (NIDUs) and members of their drug-use/sexual networks (N=270). The intervention was based primarily on the social-influencing approach, and was delivered in four sessions. Sexual risk behaviors were examined at baseline, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the completion of the intervention using the vaginal equivalent episodes (VEE), a weighted sexual risk behavior index. VEE scores decreased in both the active and control conditions in the first six months post-intervention and continued to decline in the control group. However, in the active condition, VEE scores increased after the nine-month assessment and approached baseline levels by the 12-month assessment. There was no evidence of significant differences in high-risk sexual behaviors between the intervention and control conditions. Future studies are needed to improve behavioral interventions in this population.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV transmission risk among non-injection drug users is high due to the co-occurrence of drug use and sexual risk behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to identify patterns of drug use among polysubstance users within a high HIV prevalence population. METHODS: The study sample included 409 substance users from the Pretoria region of South Africa. Substances used by 20% or more the sample included: cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana and heroin in combination, marijuana and cigarettes in combination, and crack cocaine. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of polysubstance use based on types of drugs used. Multivariate logistic regression analyses compared classes on demographics, sexual risk behavior, and disease status. RESULTS: Four classes of substance use were found: MJ+Cig (40.8%), MJ+Her (30.8%), Crack (24.7%), and Low Use (3.7%). The MJ+Cig class was 6.7 times more likely to use alcohol and 3 times more likely to use drugs before/during sex with steady partners than the Crack class. The MJ+Cig class was 16 times more likely to use alcohol before/during sex with steady partners than the MJ+Her class. The Crack class was 6.1 times more likely to engage in transactional sex and less likely to use drugs before/during steady sex than the MJ+Her class. CONCLUSIONS: Findings illustrate patterns of drug use among a polysubstance using population that differ in sexual risk behavior. Intervention strategies should address substance use, particularly smoking as a route of administration (ROA), and sexual risk behaviors that best fit this high-risk population.Drug and alcohol dependence 04/2013; 132(3). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patterns of heroin and cocaine use vary and may be associated with unique risk factors for bloodborne infections. Latent class analysis identified sub-populations of 552 heroin and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland. Using latent class regression, these classes were analyzed for associations with demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, Hepatitis C, and HIV. Three classes were found: Crack/Nasal-Heroin users (43.5%), Polysubstance users (34.8%), and Heroin Injectors (21.8%). Compared to Polysubstance users, Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were almost 7 times more likely to identify as Black (OR=6.97, 95% CI=4.35-11.2). Sharing needles was over 2.5 times more likely among Polysubstance users than among Heroin Injectors (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.49-4.75). Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were 2.5 times more likely than Polysubstance users to exchange drugs for sex (OR=2.50, 95% CI=1.22-5.13). Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were less likely than Heroin Injectors to have Hepatitis C (OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.06-0.18), but no significant differences were found for HIV. Subpopulations of cocaine and heroin users differed in demographic classifications, HIV-risk behaviors, and Hepatitis C infection. All subpopulations included substantial numbers of HIV-positive individuals. Findings provide further evidence that non-injection drug users face significant infectious disease risk.Drug and alcohol dependence 10/2011; 122(3):220-7. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.10.001 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract HIV-1 infection disproportionally affects African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). Their inclusion in biomedical and behavioral research is critical to understanding and addressing HIV vulnerability. Using focus groups, we sought to understand the perceptions related to participating in biomedical research of acute/recent HIV-1 infection (AHI) using complex sampling and data collection methods to reach this hidden group at highest risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Given the potential impact of AHI on HIV transmission in MSM, it is important to understand this intersection for HIV prevention, care, and treatment purposes. The aim of this study was to understand how recruitment and data collection methods affect AHI research participation willingness particularly among MSM of color. Findings suggest that major barriers to research participation with complex sampling to identify AHI and intensive risk behavior collection such as diary methods are lack of anonymity, partner disclosure, and study fatigue. The authors explore implications for future study designs and development based on these findings.AIDS Care 01/2013; DOI:10.1080/09540121.2012.748164 · 1.60 Impact Factor