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Nanophotonic code embedded in embossed hologram for hierarchical information retrieval

Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.
Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 03/2010; 18(7):7497-505. DOI: 10.1364/OE.18.007497
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A hierarchical hologram works in both optical far-fields and near-fields, the former being associated with conventional holographic images, and the latter being associated with the optical intensity distribution based on a nanometric structure that is accessible only via optical near-fields. We propose embedding a nanophotonic code, which is retrievable via optical near-field interactions involving nanometric structures, within an embossed hologram. Due to the one-dimensional grid structure of the hologram, evident polarization dependence appears in retrieving the code. Here we describe the basic concepts, numerical simulations, and experimental results in fabrication of a prototype hierarchical hologram and describe its optical characterization.

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Available from: Makoto Naruse, Aug 20, 2014
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    • "More generally speaking, there is wide scope for nanoscale optical near-field processes to be exploited in optical security applications. This paper reviews the physical principles and describes some experimental demonstrations of systems based on nanophotonics, with regard to security applications such as tamper resistance against non-invasive and invasive attacks [10], hierarchical information retrieval or information hiding [11], hierarchical holograms [12] [13], authentication [14] [15], and traceability [16] [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Optics has been playing crucial roles in security applications ranging from authentication and watermarks to anti-counterfeiting. However, since the fundamental physical principle involves optical far-fields, or propagating light, diffraction of light causes severe difficulties, for example in device scaling and system integration. Moreover, conventional security technologies in use today have been facing increasingly stringent demands to safeguard against threats such as counterfeiting of holograms, requiring innovative physical principles and technologies to overcome their limitations. Nanophotonics, which utilizes interactions between light and matter at the nanometer scale via optical near-field interactions, can break through the diffraction limit of conventional propagating light. Moreover, nanophotonics has some unique physical attributes, such as localized optical energy transfer and the hierarchical nature of optical near-field interactions, which pave the way for novel security functionalities. This paper reviews the physical principles and describes some experimental demonstrations of systems based on nanophotonics with respect to security applications such as tamper resistance against non-invasive and invasive attacks, hierarchical information retrieval, hierarchical holograms, authentication, and traceability.
    Journal of optics 09/2012; 14(9). DOI:10.1088/2040-8978/14/9/094002 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    • "The nanophotonic hierarchical hologram is a functionally improved version of a conventional hologram that works in both the optical far-and near-fields (Tate et al., 2008). Moreover, a nanophotonic code, which is physically a subwavelength-scale shape-engineered metal nanostructure, is embedded in the hierarchical hologram to implement a near-mode function (Tate et al., 2010). In this chapter, the basic concept of the nanophotonic hierarchical hologram with embedded nanophotonic codes and the fabrication of a sample device are described. "
    Holograms - Recording Materials and Applications, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-981-3
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    ABSTRACT: A nanophotonic hierarchical hologram works in both optical far-fields and near-fields, the former being associated with conventional holographic images, and the latter being associated with the optical intensity distribution based on a nanometric structure that is accessible only via optical near-fields. In principle, a structural change occurring at the subwavelength scale does not affect the optical response functions, which are dominated by propagating light. Therefore, the visual aspect of the hologram is not affected by such a small structural change on the surface, and retrieval in both fields can be processed independently. We propose embedding a nanophotonic code, which is retrievable via optical near-field interactions involving nanometric structures, within an embossed hologram. Due to the one-dimensional grid structure of the hologram, evident polarization dependence appears in retrieving the code. Here we describe the basic concepts, numerical simulations, and experimental demonstrations of a prototype nanophotonic hierarchical hologram with a nanophotonic code and describe its optical characterization.
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