Differential diagnosis of muscle tension dysphonia and spasmodic dysphonia.
ABSTRACT Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) can mimic the voice features of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) leading to diagnostic confusion. Researchers have begun to compare characteristics of MTD and ADSD to determine whether there are markers which reliably distinguish the two disorders and lead to improved differential diagnosis.
Differences between MTD and ADSD have been identified during fiberoptic laryngoscopy, phonatory airflow measurement, acoustic analysis, and variable sign expression based upon phonatory task. In general, evidence of task-dependent sign expression and intraword phonatory breaks should raise suspicion of ADSD over MTD. However, on the basis of conventional standards of diagnostic precision, no single diagnostic test currently exists that reliably distinguishes the two disorders.
Although perceptual voice evaluation remains the standard for differential diagnosis of ADSD and MTD, knowledge of factors that influence the severity of sign expression in ADSD is important to differential diagnosis. During clinical assessment, voice clinicians who use generic stimulus materials that do not control for specific phonetic environments or voice tasks may miss critical phenomenological features of ADSD.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives The purpose of this study was to use spectral and cepstral analyses of speech to investigate whether underlying physiological changes in voice result in changes in acoustic estimates of dysphonia severity in continuous speech contexts within a single breath group. The effect of dysphonia on acoustic estimates of dysphonia severity, frequency, relative intensity, and vocalization time across initial and terminal segments of a single breath group using a common clinical stimulus was investigated. Study Design Prospective quasi-experimental controlled design. Methods Digitized recordings of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice sentence “We were away a year ago” were obtained from 20 treatment-seeking dysphonic individuals (females, mean age = 39 years) and 20 normal controls (females, mean age = 39 years). Each recorded sample was separated into the first four syllables (“We were away … ”) and second four syllables (“…a year ago.”) of the breath group. Cepstral and spectral measures, intensity measures, and temporal analyses were obtained and used in calculations of the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID, an acoustic estimate of dysphonia severity), fundamental frequency (F0), vocalization time, and relative vocal intensity (dB SLP). Statistical analyses were applied to calculations of change (delta [Δ]) in these measures from one breath group segment to the next. Results Results revealed a significant effect of group on measures of CSID and F0, but not relative intensity or vocalization time. Dysphonic speakers exhibited a significant increase in the CSID from the first to second breath group segment and limited variation in F0 compared with controls. Conclusions These results may support the hypothesis that voice impairment increases in severity toward the termination of a breath group even within a short temporal frame (ie, 2 seconds or less of connected speech), and that this portion of the breath group may be an important determinant of perceptual impressions. Further interpretation in the context of laryngeal physiology and indications for additional study will be discussed.Journal of Voice 08/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jvoice.2014.04.012 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the short-term disability (STD) and lost work productivity related to laryngeal disorders. A retrospective analysis of a national database of work absence and STD claims was performed. Patients with 12 months of follow-up who had an STD claim specifically linked to a dysphonia diagnosis based on ICD-9 codes were identified during the period of January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008. Patient age, sex, and diagnosis and the total number of work days absent were determined. Using the mean national hourly wage, productivity losses in terms of lost wages were calculated. Of the 18,466 unique patients with an STD claim, 386 (2.1%) had an STD claim due to a laryngeal disorder. The mean age was 45.9 years (standard deviation, 9.6) with 53.2% male. The mean number of work days absent was 39.2 days (95% confidence interval: 31.9-46.5). Total STD payments in 2008 dollars were $647,269.30 with a mean per person in 12 months of $3,406.68. Total and mean lost wages in 12 months were $843,198.72 and $4,437.89, respectively. Patients with laryngeal cancer had the most days absent and highest total STD payment. Laryngeal disorders lead to work-related disability with STD and productivity losses and represent a significant societal burden. Managing work limitations from laryngeal disorders is an important public health goal.The Laryngoscope 07/2012; 122(7):1589-94. DOI:10.1002/lary.23197 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Accurate diagnosis of a voice disorder is an essential first step toward its appropriate treatment. We examined differences in laryngeal diagnosis over time in outpatients evaluated by primary care physicians (PCPs) and/or otolaryngologists.Study Design and SettingRetrospective analysis of data from a large, national administrative US claims database.Subjects and Methods Patients with laryngeal disorders based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008, with at least 2 outpatient visits by a PCP and/or otolaryngologist and continuously enrolled for 12 months were included. The initial and final laryngeal diagnoses were tabulated.ResultsOf approximately 55 million individuals, 29,501 met inclusion criteria. More than half the patients in the PCP to otolaryngology group and one-third of the otolaryngology to otolaryngology group had different laryngeal diagnoses over time. Three-fourths of patients with an initial acute laryngitis diagnosis in the PCP to otolaryngology group and half of the otolaryngology to otolaryngology group had a different final laryngeal diagnosis. Of patients with a final laryngeal cancer diagnosis, one-fourth of the otolaryngology to otolaryngology group had an initial diagnosis of nonspecific dysphonia, and one-fifth of the PCP to otolaryngology group had an initial diagnosis of acute laryngitis.Conclusion Differential diagnosis of voice disorders often evolves over time. The impact on treatment and health care utilization are important areas of future study.Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 11/2013; 150(1). DOI:10.1177/0194599813512982 · 1.72 Impact Factor