Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism near the interleukin-28B gene with response to hepatitis C therapy in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients.
ABSTRACT Given that peginterferon-ribavirin treatment is poorly tolerated, there is interest in the identification of predictors of response, particularly in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients that respond less than HCV-monoinfected individuals. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the IL28B gene (rs12979860) has been shown to predict treatment response in HCV-monoinfected patients carrying genotype 1. Information is lacking for HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals and/or other HCV genotypes.
From 650 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, we identified those who had completed a course of peginterferon-ribavirin therapy with a validated outcome and available repository DNA. The rs12979860 SNP was examined in a blinded fashion.
A total of 164 patients were included in the final IL28B genotyping analysis, 90 (55%) of whom achieved sustained virological response (SVR). HCV genotype distribution was as follows: HCV-1 58%, HCV-3 31% and HCV-4 11%. Overall, the SVR rate was higher in patients with CC than in those CT/TT genotypes: 56 of 75 (75%) versus 34 of 89 (38%) (P < 0.0001). The effect of the SNP was seen in HCV genotypes 1 and 4 but not in HCV genotype 3 carriers. In the multivariable analysis (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P value), the rs12979860 CC genotype was a strong predictor of SVR (3.7; 1.6-8.5; 0.002), independent of HCV genotype 3 (8.0; 3.1-21.0; <0.001), serum HCV-RNA less than 600,000 IU/ml (11.9; 3.8-37.4; <0.001) and lack of advanced liver fibrosis (3.5; 1.4-8.9; 0.009).
The rs12979860 SNP located near the IL28B gene is associated with HCV treatment response in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C due to genotypes 1 or 4. Thus, IL28B genotyping should be considered as part of the treatment decision algorithm in this difficult-to-treat population.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus is presently a major public health problem across the globe. The main objective in treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is to achieve a sustained virological response (SVR). Interferon-α (IFN-α) and pegylated interferon (PegIFN) in combination with Ribavirin (RBV) are the choice of treatment nowadays against chronic hepatitis C. There are several mechanisms evolved by the hepatitis C virus that facilitate the persistence of virus and further lead the patient’s status as non responder. Various factors involved in patient’s lack ofresponse to the therapy include: (1) viral factors, (2) host factors, (3) molecular mechanisms related to the lack of response and (4) social factors. Herein we have made an attempt to summarize all the related predictors of drug resistance in one article so that the future polices can be planned to overcome this obstacle and potential therapies can be designed by considering these factors.Central European Journal of Biology 12/2014; 9(12). · 0.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was identified for the first time more than 20 years ago. Since then, several studies have highlighted the complicated aspects of this viral infection in relation to its worldwide prevalence, its clinical presentation, and its therapeutic response. Recently, two landmark scientific breakthroughs have moved us closer to the successful eradication of chronic HCV infection. First, response rates in treatment-naïve patients and in prior non-responders to pegylated-interferon-α and ribavirin therapy are increasing as a direct consequence of the development of direct-acting antiviral drugs. Secondly, the discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms near the interleukin 28B gene significantly related to spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV clearance represents a milestone in the HCV therapeutic landscape. The implementation of this pharmacogenomics finding as a routine test for HCV-infected patients has enhanced our understanding of viral pathogenesis, has encouraged the design of ground-breaking antiviral treatment regimens, and has become useful for pretreatment decision making. Nowadays, interleukin 28B genotyping is considered to be a key diagnostic tool for the management of HCV-infected patients and will maintain its significance for new combination treatment schemes using direct-acting antiviral agents and even in interferon-free regimens. Such pharmacogenomics insights represent a challenge to clinicians, researchers, and health administrators to transform this information into knowledge with the aim of elaborating safer and more effective therapeutic strategies specifically designed for each patient. In conclusion, the individualization of treatment regimens for patients with hepatitis C, that may lead to a universal cure in future years, is becoming a reality due to recent developments in biomarker and genomic medicine. In light of these advances, we review the scientific evidence and clinical implications of recent findings related to host genetic factors in the management of HCV infection.Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 01/2014; 7:339-47.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as a major viral pandemic over the past two decades, infecting 170 million individuals, which equates to approximately 3% of the world's population. The prevalence of HCV varies according to geographic region, being highest in developing countries such as Egypt. HCV has a high tendency to induce chronic progressive liver damage in the form of hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, or liver cancer. To date, there is no vaccine against HCV infection. Combination therapy comprising PEGylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin has been the standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C for more than a decade. However, many patients still do not respond to therapy or develop adverse events. Recently, direct antiviral agents such as protease inhibitors, polymerase inhibitors, or NS5A inhibitors have been used to augment PEGylated interferon and ribavirin, resulting in better efficacy, better tolerance, and a shorter treatment duration. However, most clinical trials have focused on assessing the efficacy and safety of direct antiviral agents in patients with genotype 1, and the response of other HCV genotypes has not been elucidated. Moreover, the prohibitive costs of such triple therapies will limit their use in patients in developing countries where most of the HCV infection exists. Understanding the host and viral factors associated with viral clearance is necessary for individualizing therapy to maximize sustained virologic response rates, prevent progression to liver disease, and increase the overall benefits of therapy with respect to its costs. Genome wide studies have shown significant associations between a set of polymorphisms in the region of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene and natural clearance of HCV infection or after PEGylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin treatment with and without direct antiviral agents. This paper synthesizes the recent advances in the pharmacogenetics of HCV infection in the era of triple therapies.Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research 01/2014; 6:61-77.