HIV Treatment Optimism and Unsafe Anal Intercourse Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men: Findings from the Positive Connections Study
This study was designed to examine the impact of HIV treatment optimism on sexual risk among a racially diverse sample of HIV-positive MSM. Survey data were collected from 346 racially diverse HIV-positive MSM. Inclusion criteria: 18 years of age, male, at least one incident of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the last year, currently on treatment. Other variables included demographics, sexual risk, depression, internalized homonegativity, HIV treatment history, alcohol/drug use and beliefs about HIV treatments (Susceptibility to transmit HIV, Severity of HIV infection and Condom Motivation). Those with lower income were more likely to report that HIV was less transmissible. A self-reported decrease in condom motivation was associated with being White, well-educated and increased alcohol/drug use. A decrease in Severity of HIV was associated with better mental health, being non-White and undetectable viral load. Sexual risk appears related to beliefs about how treatment affects the transmissibility of HIV. Race, socioeconomic status, alcohol/drug use, mental health and viral load were also associated with treatment beliefs.
Available from: Christiana Nöstlinger
- "In this context, multiple-behaviour interventions could have a greater impact on public health than single-behaviour interventions [29,30]. Further research is needed on development of effective multiple-behaviour interventions for this target group, which also must be tailored to the needs of specific subgroups such as HIV positive men [20,31-33] and HIV negative men, who are at greater risk for infections with HIV/STI . "
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ABSTRACT: European men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionally affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Several factors are contributing to the rates of new HIV infections among MSM. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of travel behaviour and sexual mobility in the spread of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among European MSM.
Belgian data from the first pan-European MSM internet survey EMIS was used (n=3860) to explore individual and contextual determinants of sexual behaviour among MSM, who resided in Belgium at the time of data collection and who reported having had sexual contact abroad in the last 12 months. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by means of logistic regression.
MSM who practiced unprotected anal intercourse UAI during their last sexual encounter abroad were less likely to be living in a large city (OR:0.62, 95% CI:0.45-0,86, p<0.01) and more likely to be HIV positive (OR: 6.20, 95% CI:4.23-9.06, p<0.001) ), to have tested HIV positive in the last 12 months (OR:3.07, 95% CI:1.07-8.80, p<0.05), to have been diagnosed with any STI in the last 12 months (OR:2.55; 95% CI:1.77-3.67, p<0.05), to have used party drugs (OR:2.22, 95% CI :1.59-3.09, p<0.001), poppers (OR:1.52, 95% CI:1.07-2.14, p<0.001) and erection enhancing substances (OR:2.23, 95% CI:1.61-3.09, p<0.001) compared to MSM who did not have UAI with their last sexual partner abroad. Men having had UAI in the last 12 months were more likely to have done so in a neighbouring country of Belgium (OR: 1.66, 95% CI:1.21-2.29, p<0.001). Different sexual behavioural patterns related to condom use and drug use were identified according to HIV test status among travelling men.
The results of this study provide evidence for the role of international mobility and sexual behavior while travelling, in the spread of HIV and STI among MSM in Europe. Further, the findings underline the need for development of European cross-border HIV and STI interventions with coherent messages and prevention policies for MSM.
BMC Public Health 10/2013; 13(1):968. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-968 · 2.26 Impact Factor
Available from: La Fleur F Small
- "In addition to AIDS burnout and treatment optimism, research indicates an increase in sexual risk behavior among MSMs (Benotsch et al., 2002; Blackwell, 2008; Brennan, 2010; Brewer et al., 2006; Parsons, 2005; Van Kesteren, 2007; Wolitski et al., 2001). It is possible that the practice of faulty harm reduction sexual techniques has contributed to the increase of new HIV cases among MSMs. "
Social and Psychological Aspects of HIV/AIDS and their Ramifications, 10/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-640-9
Available from: Juan Ambrosioni
- "HAART improves health and well-being and has changed the perception of HIV infection , considered now to be a manageable chronic disease. This may lead some patients to abandon safe sex, a phenomenon called risk compensation [37,38]. "
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ABSTRACT: "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions) is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child.
Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear.
Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need?
In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission.
More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely measure the incidence of HIV infection. Such trials face formidable logistical, practical and ethical obstacles. However, without definitive data, the intuitive appeal of "test-and-treat" is unlikely to translate into action on a global scale. In the meantime, based on the available evidence, we must strive to provide treatment to all those in medical need under the current medical guidelines. This will lead to a decrease in HIV transmission while "test-and-treat" is fully explored in prospective clinical trials.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 05/2011; 14(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1758-2652-14-28 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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