Stress fractures are common during military training but femoral neck stress fractures are uncommon and sometimes pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. An incomplete stress fracture with excellent prognosis, if left unprotected, can lead to displaced femoral neck fracture with almost 63% complication rate even with best of the treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze various aspects of the femoral neck stress fracture so that early diagnosis can be made to prevent devastating complications like osteonecrosis and non-union.
The four year army hospital record of 16 patients with femoral neck stress fracture were studied. Their demographic profile, type of fracture, presentation delay, on set of clinical symptoms and complication of femoral neck stress fracture were critically analyzed.
The mean age of the patient was 19.94 years. Total 74% of them developed first symptoms of stress fracture between four to seven weeks of training. There was 3.4 weeks delay from the clinical onset of symptoms to the diagnosis of stress fracture. The type of femoral neck stress fracture were compression (31.25%), tension (18.75%) and displaced (50%). Out of eight displaced type of fractures, 5 (62.5%) had developed complications (3 osteonecrosis and 2 nonunion).
Femoral neck stress fracture occurs in initial four to seven weeks of training. The high index of suspicion in initial period of training can help to detect and decreases significant morbidity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical strain plays a critical role in the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of bone cells. As mechanical receptor cells, osteoblasts perceive and respond to stress force, such as those associated with compression, strain and shear stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process remain unclear. Using a four-point bending device, mouse MC3T3-E1 cells was exposed to mechanical tensile strain. Cell proliferation was determined to be most efficient when stimulated once a day by mechanical strain at a frequency of 0.5 Hz and intensities of 2500 µε with once a day, and a periodicity of 1 h/day for 3 days. The applied mechanical strain resulted in the altered expression of 1992 genes, 41 of which are involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Activation of ERK by mechanical strain promoted cell proliferation and inactivation of ERK by PD98059 suppressed proliferation, confirming that ERK plays an important role in the response to mechanical strain. Furthermore, the membrane-associated receptors integrin β1 and integrin β5 were determined to regulate ERK activity and the proliferation of mechanical strain-treated MC3T3-E1 cells in opposite ways. The knockdown of integrin β1 led to the inhibition of ERK activity and cell proliferation, whereas the knockdown of integrin β5 led to the enhancement of both processes. This study proposes a novel mechanism by which mechanical strain regulates bone growth and remodeling.
PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e35709. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0035709 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck stress fracture in healthy young adult is one of the very rare clinical entities that an orthopedic surgeon may encounter once in lifetime. Bilateral femoral neck stress fractures have been very well documented in elderly and osteoma-lacia patients; however, its simultaneous occurrence in a healthy adult is challenging to diagnose and manage. This article describes a 34-year-old man a military personnel who sustained bilateral stress femoral neck fractures, dur-ing a routine training activity. The patient was come to our institution, and a full endocrine evaluation was performed and proved unremarkable. He underwent closed reduction and internal fixation of the fractures using cannulated screws on both the sides. At 1-year follow-up, the fractures went on to complete union. Despite strict non-weight-bearing instructions for initial 3-month period, patient bore weight on the limbs resulting in varus union on the left side. Our case emphasizes the significance of obtaining a complete and thorough medical history on physical examination and appropriately counseling patients regard-ing activity level even after successful fixation.
European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology 11/2012; 22(S1). DOI:10.1007/s00590-011-0864-0 · 0.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetabular labrum tears (ALT) are present in 22-55% of individuals with hip or groin pain. Tears can occur as a result of trauma or degeneration and are markedly associated with femoral acetabular morphological variations. An ALT can lead to biomechanical deficiencies and a loss of stability to the coxafemoral joint due to the labrum serving as a stabilising structure of this joint. The diagnosis of ALT is complex and multidimensional. Although tremendous improvements in diagnostic utility for ALT have occurred in the past 25 years, there are few patient history, clinical examination and special test findings that are unique to the condition. Imaging methods such as MRI, CT and ultrasonography have demonstrated reasonable accuracy, but not at a level that allows use as a stand-alone measure. Outcomes measures that focus on functional limitation or that are used to measure recovery should envelop the complexities of the condition and be captured using both self-report and physical performance measures. Only when patient history, objective testing, clinical examination special testing and imaging are combined can a clinician fully elucidate the multidimensional diagnosis of ALT.
British Journal of Sports Medicine 07/2013; 48(4). DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091994 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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