The involvement of circulating microparticles in inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular diseases

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna and S Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Italy.
The Canadian journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.94). 04/2010; 26(4):140-5. DOI: 10.1016/S0828-282X(10)70371-8
Source: PubMed


Microparticles (MPs) are small vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 microm to 2 microm, originating from plasma membranes of endothelial cells, platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes. MPs can transfer antigens and receptors to cell types that are different from their cell of origin. Circulating MPs provide a procoagulant aminophospholipid surface for the assembly of the specific enzymes of coagulation. Both tissue factor and phosphatidylserine are exposed on MP outer membranes. In addition, MPs can play a significant role in vascular function and inflammation by modulating nitric oxide and prostacyclin production in endothelial cells, and stimulating cytokine release and tissue factor induction in endothelial cells, as well as monocyte chemotaxis and adherence to the endothelium. Finally, increased levels of MPs have been found in the presence of acute coronary syndromes, ischemic stroke, diabetes, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia. From a practical point of view, MPs could be considered to be important markers of cardiovascular risk, as well as surrogate end points for assessing the efficacy of new drugs and therapies.

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    • "Other in vitro and in vivo studies have also shown effects on the expression of intracellular miRNAs from PM (Bleck et al., 2013; Fossati et al., 2014) or other exposures that include PM, such as diesel exhaust (Yamamoto et al., 2013) or tobacco smoking (De Flora et al., 2012; Maccani et al., 2010). Although the mechanisms linking air pollution and pulmonary inflammatory responses to vascular diseases are currently unknown, MVs are a plausible link because they can be produced by the respiratory system (Kesimer et al., 2009), can be disseminated through the circulatory system (Orozco and Lewis, 2010) and can lead to cardiovascular dysfunction (Puddu et al., 2010). We investigated the hypothesis that PM and PMassociated metals could modify specific MV-associated miRNAs from plasma. "
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    Journal of Applied Toxicology 01/2015; 35(1). DOI:10.1002/jat.2987 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    • "As demonstrated previously, monocytes and macrophages are primary sources of circulating TF via the shedding of TF-bearing MPs41. These MPs, which have PSGP-1 on their surface, participate in platelet thrombus formation not merely by binding to P-selectin on activated platelets67 but by fusing with these platelets via PSGL-1, transferring lipids and proteins, including TF, into their plasma membranes71. "
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