The involvement of circulating microparticles in inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular diseases.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna and S Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Italy.
The Canadian journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.94). 04/2010; 26(4):140-5. DOI: 10.1016/S0828-282X(10)70371-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Microparticles (MPs) are small vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 microm to 2 microm, originating from plasma membranes of endothelial cells, platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes. MPs can transfer antigens and receptors to cell types that are different from their cell of origin. Circulating MPs provide a procoagulant aminophospholipid surface for the assembly of the specific enzymes of coagulation. Both tissue factor and phosphatidylserine are exposed on MP outer membranes. In addition, MPs can play a significant role in vascular function and inflammation by modulating nitric oxide and prostacyclin production in endothelial cells, and stimulating cytokine release and tissue factor induction in endothelial cells, as well as monocyte chemotaxis and adherence to the endothelium. Finally, increased levels of MPs have been found in the presence of acute coronary syndromes, ischemic stroke, diabetes, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia. From a practical point of view, MPs could be considered to be important markers of cardiovascular risk, as well as surrogate end points for assessing the efficacy of new drugs and therapies.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Platelets, once considered mediators of hemostasis and thrombosis, are now known to be involved in wound healing, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, and cancer. Recent reports attest that platelets possess the cellular machinery to undergo apoptosis and that platelet apoptosis can be triggered by myriad stimuli including chemical and physical agonists, and pathophysiological conditions. Augmented rate of platelet apoptosis leads to thrombocytopenia, bleeding disorders and microparticle generation. Despite knowing the significant role of platelets in health and disease, and that any alterations in platelet functions can wreak havoc to the health, the offshoot reactions of therapeutic drugs on platelets and the far-reaching consequences are often neglected. The present review focuses on the impact of platelet apoptosis and the role of platelet-derived microparticles on different pathophysiological conditions. It also touches upon the effects of biologicals on platelets, and discusses the need to overcome the adverse effects of pro-apoptotic drugs through auxiliary therapy
    Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2014.11.002 · 4.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a severe and complex syndrome that lacks effective prevention or therapeutics. The effects of sepsis on the microvasculature have become an attractive area for possible new targets and therapeutics. Microparticles (MPs) are cell membrane-derived particles that can promote coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis, and they can participate in cell-to-cell communication. MPs retain cell membrane and cytoplasmic constituents of their parental cells, including two procoagulants: phosphatidylserine and tissue factor. We highlight the role of microparticles released by endothelial and circulating cells after sepsis-induced microvascular injury, and we discuss possible mechanisms by which microparticles can contribute to endothelial dysfunction, immunosuppression, and multiorgan dysfunction-including sepsis-AKI. Once viewed as cellular byproducts, microparticles are emerging as a new class of markers and mediators in the pathogenesis of sepsis.Kidney International advance online publication, 18 February 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.26.
    Kidney International 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/ki.2015.26 · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite epidemiological findings showing increased air pollution related cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the knowledge of the involved molecular mechanisms remains moderate or weak. Particulate matter (PM) produces a local strong inflammatory reaction in the pulmonary environment but there is no final evidence that PM physically enters and deposits in blood vessels. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their miRNA cargo might be the ideal candidate to mediate the effects of PM, since they could be potentially produced by the respiratory system, reach the systemic circulation and lead to the development of cardiovascular effects.The SPHERE ("Susceptibility to Particle Health Effects, miRNAs and Exosomes") project was granted by ERC-2011-StG 282413, to examine possible molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of PM exposure in relation to health outcomes.Methods/design: The study population will include 2000 overweight (25 < BMI < 30 kg/cm2) or obese (BMI >= 30 kg/cm2) subjects presenting at the Center for Obesity and Work (Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy).Each subject donates blood, urine and hair samples. Extensive epidemiological and clinical data are collected. Exposure to PM is assigned to each subject using both daily PM10 concentration series from air quality monitors and pollutant levels estimated by the FARM (Flexible Air Quality Regional Model) modelling system and elaborated by the Regional Environmental Protection Agency.The recruitment period started in September 2010 and will continue until 2015. At December 31, 2013 we recruited 1250 subjects, of whom 87% lived in the province of Milan.Primary study outcomes include cardiometabolic and respiratory health effects. The main molecular mechanism we are investigating focuses on EV-associated microRNAs.
    BMC Public Health 11/2014; 14(1):1137. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1137 · 2.32 Impact Factor


Available from