Glycopyrrolate for sialorrhea in Parkinson disease: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial.
ABSTRACT Sialorrhea affects approximately 75% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Sialorrhea is often treated with anticholinergics, but central side effects limit their usefulness. Glycopyrrolate (glycopyrronium bromide) is an anticholinergic drug with a quaternary ammonium structure not able to cross the blood-brain barrier in considerable amounts. Therefore, glycopyrrolate exhibits minimal central side effects, which may be an advantage in patients with PD, of whom a significant portion already experience cognitive deficits.
To determine the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate in the treatment of sialorrhea in patients with PD.
We conducted a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with oral glycopyrrolate 1 mg 3 times daily in 23 patients with PD. The severity of the sialorrhea was scored on a daily basis by the patients or a caregiver with a sialorrhea scoring scale ranging from 1 (no sialorrhea) to 9 (profuse sialorrhea).
The mean (SD) sialorrhea score improved from 4.6 (1.7) with placebo to 3.8 (1.6) with glycopyrrolate (p = 0.011). Nine patients (39.1%) with glycopyrrolate had a clinically relevant improvement of at least 30% vs 1 patient (4.3%) with placebo (p = 0.021). There were no significant differences in adverse events between glycopyrrolate and placebo treatment.
Oral glycopyrrolate 1 mg 3 times daily is an effective and safe therapy for sialorrhea in Parkinson disease. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that glycopyrrolate 1 mg 3 times daily is more effective than placebo in reducing sialorrhea in patients with Parkinson disease during a 4-week study.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical features, anatomy and physiology of hyperhidrosis are presented with a review of the world literature on treatment. Level of drug efficacy is defined according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Neurology. Topical agents (glycopyrrolate and methylsulfate) are evidence level B (probably effective). Oral agents (oxybutynin and methantheline bromide) are also level B. In a total of 831 patients, 1 class I and 2 class II blinded studies showed level B efficacy of OnabotulinumtoxinA (A/Ona), while 1 class I and 1 class II study also demonstrated level B efficacy of AbobotulinumtoxinA (A/Abo) in axillary hyperhidrosis (AH), collectively depicting Level A evidence (established) for botulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). In a comparator study, A/Ona and A/Inco toxins demonstrated comparable efficacy in AH. For IncobotulinumtoxinA (A/Inco) no placebo controlled studies exist; thus, efficacy is Level C (possibly effective) based solely on the aforementioned class II comparator study. For RimabotulinumtoxinB (B/Rima), one class III study has suggested Level U efficacy (insufficient data). In palmar hyperhidrosis (PH), there are 3 class II studies for A/Ona and 2 for A/Abo (individually and collectively level B for BoNT-A) and no blinded study for A/Inco (level U). For B/Rima the level of evidence is C (possibly effective) based on 1 class II study. Botulinum toxins (BoNT) provide a long lasting effect of 3-9 months after one injection session. Studies on BoNT-A iontophoresis are emerging (2 class II studies; level B); however, data on duration and frequency of application is inconsistent.Toxins 05/2013; 5(4):821-40. DOI:10.3390/toxins5040821 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Although no available therapies alter the underlying neurodegenerative process, symptomatic therapies can improve patient quality of life. To provide an evidence-based review of the initial pharmacological management of the classic motor symptoms of Parkinson disease; describe management of medication-related motor complications (such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesia), and other medication adverse effects (nausea, psychosis, and impulse control disorders and related behaviors); and discuss the management of selected nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, cognitive impairment, depression, orthostatic hypotension, and sialorrhea. References were identified using searches of PubMed between January 1985 and February 2014 for English-language human studies and the full database of the Cochrane Library. The classification of studies by quality (classes I-IV) was assessed using the levels of evidence guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology and the highest-quality data for each topic. Although levodopa is the most effective medication available for treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease, in certain instances (eg, mild symptoms, tremor as the only or most prominent symptom, aged <60 years) other medications (eg, monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors [MAOBIs], amantadine, anticholinergics, β-blockers, or dopamine agonists) may be initiated first to avoid levodopa-related motor complications. Motor fluctuations may be managed by modifying the levodopa dosing regimen or by adding several other medications, such as MAOBIs, catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, or dopamine agonists. Impulse control disorders are typically managed by reducing or withdrawing dopaminergic medication, particularly dopamine agonists. Evidence-based management of some nonmotor symptoms is limited by a paucity of high-quality positive studies. Strong evidence supports using levodopa and dopamine agonists for motor symptoms at all stages of Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists and drugs that block dopamine metabolism are effective for motor fluctuations and clozapine is effective for hallucinations. Cholinesterase inhibitors may improve symptoms of dementia and antidepressants and pramipexole may improve depression. Evidence supporting other therapies for motor and nonmotor features is less well established.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/2014; 311(16):1670-83. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.3654 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease causing both motor and non-motor symptoms. Drooling, an excessive pooling and spillover of saliva out of the oral cavity, is one of the non-motor symptoms in PD patients that produces various negative physical and psychosocial consequences for patients and their caregivers. At present, the pathophysiology of drooling in PD is not completely certain; however, impaired intra-oral salivary clearance is likely the major contributor. There are neither standard diagnostic criteria nor standard severity assessment tools for evaluating drooling in PD. In accordance with the possible pathophysiology, dopaminergic agents have been used to improve salivary clearance; however, these agents are not completely effective in controlling drooling. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options have been studied. Local injection with botulinum toxin serotypes A and B into major salivary glands is most effective to reduce drooling. Future research to explore the exact pathophysiology and develop standard diagnostic criteria and standard severity assessment tools are needed to formulate specific treatment options and improve patient care.Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.08.013 · 4.13 Impact Factor