Glycopyrrolate for sialorrhea in Parkinson disease: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial.
ABSTRACT Sialorrhea affects approximately 75% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Sialorrhea is often treated with anticholinergics, but central side effects limit their usefulness. Glycopyrrolate (glycopyrronium bromide) is an anticholinergic drug with a quaternary ammonium structure not able to cross the blood-brain barrier in considerable amounts. Therefore, glycopyrrolate exhibits minimal central side effects, which may be an advantage in patients with PD, of whom a significant portion already experience cognitive deficits.
To determine the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate in the treatment of sialorrhea in patients with PD.
We conducted a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with oral glycopyrrolate 1 mg 3 times daily in 23 patients with PD. The severity of the sialorrhea was scored on a daily basis by the patients or a caregiver with a sialorrhea scoring scale ranging from 1 (no sialorrhea) to 9 (profuse sialorrhea).
The mean (SD) sialorrhea score improved from 4.6 (1.7) with placebo to 3.8 (1.6) with glycopyrrolate (p = 0.011). Nine patients (39.1%) with glycopyrrolate had a clinically relevant improvement of at least 30% vs 1 patient (4.3%) with placebo (p = 0.021). There were no significant differences in adverse events between glycopyrrolate and placebo treatment.
Oral glycopyrrolate 1 mg 3 times daily is an effective and safe therapy for sialorrhea in Parkinson disease. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that glycopyrrolate 1 mg 3 times daily is more effective than placebo in reducing sialorrhea in patients with Parkinson disease during a 4-week study.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical features, anatomy and physiology of hyperhidrosis are presented with a review of the world literature on treatment. Level of drug efficacy is defined according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Neurology. Topical agents (glycopyrrolate and methylsulfate) are evidence level B (probably effective). Oral agents (oxybutynin and methantheline bromide) are also level B. In a total of 831 patients, 1 class I and 2 class II blinded studies showed level B efficacy of OnabotulinumtoxinA (A/Ona), while 1 class I and 1 class II study also demonstrated level B efficacy of AbobotulinumtoxinA (A/Abo) in axillary hyperhidrosis (AH), collectively depicting Level A evidence (established) for botulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). In a comparator study, A/Ona and A/Inco toxins demonstrated comparable efficacy in AH. For IncobotulinumtoxinA (A/Inco) no placebo controlled studies exist; thus, efficacy is Level C (possibly effective) based solely on the aforementioned class II comparator study. For RimabotulinumtoxinB (B/Rima), one class III study has suggested Level U efficacy (insufficient data). In palmar hyperhidrosis (PH), there are 3 class II studies for A/Ona and 2 for A/Abo (individually and collectively level B for BoNT-A) and no blinded study for A/Inco (level U). For B/Rima the level of evidence is C (possibly effective) based on 1 class II study. Botulinum toxins (BoNT) provide a long lasting effect of 3-9 months after one injection session. Studies on BoNT-A iontophoresis are emerging (2 class II studies; level B); however, data on duration and frequency of application is inconsistent.Toxins 05/2013; 5(4):821-40. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is an unmet need for validated tools to measure sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, especially to evaluate treatments. We assessed the inter-/intra-rate reviewer reliability of two scales: the Oral Secretion Scale (OSS), specifically developed for ALS patients, and the Sialorrhea Scoring Scale (SSS), initially developed for Parkinson's disease patients. Sialorrhea was rated in 69 ALS consecutive patients by four evaluators: two neurologists, one nurse and one speech therapist. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated by the light kappa coefficient and intra-rater reliability by the weighted kappa coefficient. We also compared patients' and caregivers' answers. Results demonstrated that the two scales present a high inter-/intra-rater reliability: weighted kappas were 0.85 for both scales and light kappas 0.89 for the OSS and 0.88 for the SSS. Both scales also showed a good intra-profession reliability (OSS kappa = 0.84; SSS kappa = 0.79) and agreement between patients' and caregivers' answers. The SSS showed a higher responsiveness compared to OSS. In conclusion, both Oral Secretion Scale and Sialorrhea Scoring Scale are reliable tools to measure sialorrhea in ALS patients. Because of the wide range of salivation degrees, SSS may be more sensitive as a tool to evaluate treatments in patients with severe hypersialorrhea.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 10/2012; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Autonomic dysfunction, including orthostatic hypotension (OH), sialorrhea, sexual dysfunction, urinary dysfunction and constipation is a common feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Even though its treatment has been recognized as a major unmet need in PD, there is a paucity of clinical trials to assess their treatment. Areas covered: Evidence about the efficacy and safety of available treatments for autonomic dysfunction is summarized. Potential targets for upcoming therapies are then discussed in light of what is currently known about the physiopathology of each disorder in PD. Proof-of-concept trials and circumstantial evidence about treatments for autonomic dysfunction as well as upcoming clinical trials are discussed. Finally, critical aspects of clinical trials design are considered. Expert opinion: Botulinum toxin (BTX) or glycopyrrolate might be used for sialorrhea whereas macrogol could be useful in constipation. There is preliminary evidence suggesting that fludrocortisone, domperidone, droxidopa or fipamezole may be effective for the treatment of OH. Tropicamide, clonidine or radiotherapy are under development for sialorrhea. Sildenafil may be effective for the treatment of erectile dysfunction; BTX or behavioral therapy for urinary incontinence and lubiprostone and probiotics for constipation. Sound clinical trials are needed in order to allow firm evidence-based recommendations about these treatments.Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs 02/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor