Crossveinless-c, the Drosophila homolog of tumor suppressor DLC1, regulates directional elongation of dendritic branches via down-regulating Rho1 activity.
ABSTRACT Diverse neuronal subtypes develop distinctive morphologies of dendritic arbors that receive synaptic or sensory inputs. Dendritic arbors of many subtypes take on a polarized shape, and one underlying mechanism is unidirectionally biased elongation of dendritic branches. As reported herein, we found that Drosophila Crossveinless-c (Cv-c) was a key regulator for such directional growth. In the cv-c mutant, two subclass of multidendritic sensory neurons examined formed dorsally directed branches; however, dendritic branches had difficulty in growing along the anterior-posterior (A-P) body axis. Cv-c belongs to the family of Rho GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs) and is the homolog of human tumor suppressor DLC1. The RhoGAP activity of Cv-c was required cell-autonomously for the A-P-oriented growth, and Cv-c elevated the GTPase activity of Rho1 and Cdc42 in a cell-free assay. Our analysis of genetic interactions suggested that Rho1 was the target of Cv-c in vivo. All of our results suggest that Cv-c contributes to sprouting and subsequent growth of the A-P-oriented branches through negative regulation of Rho1. We discuss a role of Cv-c in dendritic growth in response to environmental cues.
- SourceAvailable from: Kaoru Sugimura[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Little has been understood about the underlying mechanisms that generate the morphological diversity of dendritic trees. Dendritic arborization neurons in Drosophila provide an excellent model system to tackle this question, and they are classified into classes I-IV in order of increasing arbor complexity. Here we have developed transgenic green fluorescent protein markers for class I or class IV cells, which allowed time-lapse recordings of dendritic birth in the embryo, its maturation processes in the larva, and lesion-induced reactions. The two classes used distinct strategies of dendritic emergence from the cell body and branching, which contributed to differences in their basic arbor patterns. In contrast to the class I cells examined, one cell of class IV, which was a focus in this study, continued to elaborate branches throughout larval stages, and it was much more capable of responding to the severing of branches. We also investigated the cellular basis of field formation between adjacent class IV cells. Our results support the fact that class-specific inhibitory interaction is necessary and sufficient for tiling and confirmed that this intercellular communication was at work at individual dendrodendritic interfaces. Finally, this inhibitory signaling appeared to play a central role when arbors of adjacent cells started meeting midway between the cells and until the body wall became partitioned into abutting, minimal-overlapping territories.Journal of Neuroscience 06/2003; 23(9):3752-60. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Synapse function and plasticity depend on the physical structure of dendritic spines as determined by the actin cytoskeleton. We have investigated the organization of filamentous (F-) actin within individual spines on CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. Using two-photon photoactivation of green fluorescent protein fused to beta-actin, we found that a dynamic pool of F-actin at the tip of the spine quickly treadmilled to generate an expansive force. The size of a stable F-actin pool at the base of the spine depended on spine volume. Repeated two-photon uncaging of glutamate formed a third pool of F-actin and enlarged the spine. The spine often released this "enlargement pool" into the dendritic shaft, but the pool had to be physically confined by a spine neck for the enlargement to be long-lasting. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulated this confinement. Thus, spines have an elaborate mechanical nature that is regulated by actin fibers.Neuron 04/2008; 57(5):719-29. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic morphology has a profound impact on neuronal information processing. The overall extent and orientation of dendrites determines the kinds of input a neuron receives. Fine dendritic appendages called spines act as subcellular compartments devoted to processing synaptic information, and the dendritic branching pattern determines the efficacy with which synaptic information is transmitted to the soma. The acquisition of a mature dendritic morphology depends on the coordinated action of a number of different extracellular factors. Here we discuss this evidence in the context of dendritic development in the cerebral cortex. Soon after migrating to the cortical plate, neurons extend an apical dendrite directed toward the pial surface. The oriented growth of the apical dendrite is regulated by Sema3A, which acts as a dendritic chemoattractant. Subsequent dendritic development involves signaling by neurotrophic factors and Notch, which regulate dendritic growth and branching. During postnatal development the formation and stabilization of dendritic spines are regulated in part by patterns of synaptic activity. These observations suggest that extracellular signals play an important role in regulating every aspect of dendritic development and thereby exert a critical influence on cortical connectivity.Annual Review of Neuroscience 02/2002; 25:127-49. · 20.61 Impact Factor