One-year treatment costs of trauma care in the USA.
ABSTRACT Although injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, few prior studies exist on the costs of trauma care. This article estimates treatment costs of care for 12 months following injury. Primary and secondary data were collected on over 5000 moderate-to-severely injured patients 18-84 years of age discharged from 69 US hospitals. Acute and post-acute costs of care were estimated from a combination of data sources: UB92 hospital bills, patient surveys, medical record abstracts, and where available, Medicare claims. Key analysis variables were demographic characteristics, insurance status and nature and severity of injury. Mean 1-year cost per patient of trauma care in our population was $75,210. On average, 58% of cost was accounted for by the index hospitalization. Total 1-year treatment cost of adult major trauma in the USA was conservatively estimated to be US$27 billion annually (2005).
- SourceAvailable from: Fred Rivara
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- "One-year costs of care were estimated from a combination of data sources: hospital bills, patient surveys, medical records , and Medicare claims. Details regarding the methods on how these cost estimates were derived have been previously published (Weir et al., 2010). Individual costs were estimated for: (1) pre-index hospital care (transportation and transferring emergency department services); (2) index hospitalization; (3) rehospitalizations; (4) inpatient rehabilitation ; (5) skilled nursing facility stays; (6) post-hospitalization outpatient care (physician and mental health professional visits, home health, and physical and occupational therapy); and (7) informal care from friends and family. "
ABSTRACT: Despite the growing number of older adults experiencing traumatic brain injury (TBI), little information exists regarding their utilization and cost of health care services. Identifying patterns in the type of care received and determining their costs is an important first step toward understanding the return on investment and potential areas for improvement. We performed a health care utilization and cost analysis using the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT) dataset. Subjects were persons 55-84 years of age with TBI treated in 69 U.S. hospitals located in 14 states (n=414, weighted n=1038). Health outcomes, health care utilization, and 1-year costs of care following TBI in 2005 U.S. dollars were estimated from hospital bills, patient surveys, medical records, and Medicare claims data. The subjects were further analyzed in three subgroups (55-64, 65-74, and 75-84 years of age). Unadjusted cost models were built, followed by a second set of models adjusting for demographic and pre-injury health status. Those in the oldest category (75-84 years) had significantly higher numbers of re-hospitalizations, home health care visits, and hours per week of unpaid care, and significantly lower numbers of physician and mental health professional visits than younger age groups (age 55-64 and 65-74 years). Significant age-related differences were seen in all health outcomes tested at 12 months post-injury except for incidence of depressive symptoms. One-year total treatment costs did not differ significantly across age categories for brain-injured older adults in either the unadjusted or adjusted models. The unadjusted total mean 1-year cost of care was $77,872 in persons aged 55-64 years, $76,903 in persons aged 65-74 years, and $72,733 in persons aged 75-84 years. There were significant differences in cost drivers among the age groups. In the unadjusted model index hospitalization costs and inpatient rehabilitation costs were significantly lower in the oldest age category, while outpatient care costs and nursing home stays were lower in the younger age categories. In the adjusted model, in addition to these cost drivers, re-hospitalization costs were significantly higher among those 75-84 years of age, and receipt of informal care from friends and family was significantly different, being lowest among those aged 65-74 years, and highest among those aged 75-84 years. Identifying variations in care that these patients are receiving and determining the costs versus benefits is an important next step in understanding potential areas for improvement.Journal of neurotrauma 03/2012; 29(10):1864-71. DOI:10.1089/neu.2011.2284 · 3.97 Impact Factor
Article: The Value of Trauma Center Care[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cost of trauma center care is high, raising questions about the value of a regionalized approach to trauma care. To address these concerns, we estimate 1-year and lifetime treatment costs and measure the cost-effectiveness of treatment at a Level I trauma center (TC) compared with a nontrauma center hospital (NTC). Estimates of cost-effectiveness were derived using data on 5,043 major trauma patients enrolled in the National Study on Costs and Outcomes of Trauma, a prospective cohort study of severely injured adult patients cared for in 69 hospitals in 14 states. Data on costs were derived from multiple sources including claims data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, UB92 hospital bills, and patient interviews. Cost-effectiveness was estimated as the ratio of the difference in costs (for treatment at a TC vs. NTC) divided by the difference in life years gained (and lives saved). We also measured cost-effectiveness per quality-adjusted life year gained where quality of life was measured using the SF-6D. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting to adjust for observable differences between patients treated at TCs and NTCs. The added cost for treatment at a TC versus NTC was $36,319 per life-year gained ($790,931 per life saved) and $36,961 per quality-adjusted life years gained. Cost-effectiveness was more favorable for patients with injuries of higher versus lower severity and for younger versus older patients. Our findings provide evidence that regionalization of trauma care is not only effective but also it is cost-effective.The Journal of trauma 07/2010; 69(1):1-10. DOI:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e03a21 · 2.96 Impact Factor