The Reliability of Survey Attitude Measurement
ABSTRACT Several theoretical hypotheses are developed concerning the relation of question and respondent characteristics to the reliability of survey attitude measurement. To test these hypotheses, reliability is estimated for 96 survey attitude measures using data from five, 3-wave national reinterview surveys-three Michigan Election Panel Surveys and two reinterview studies conducted by the General Social Survey. As hypothesized, a number of attributes of questions are linked to estimated reliability. Attitude questions with more response options tended to have higher reliabilities, although there are some important exceptions. More extensive verbal labeling of numbered response options was found to be associated with higher reliability, but questions explicitly offering a “don't know” alternative were not found to be more reliable. Question characteristics were confounded to an unknown degree with topic differences of questions, which were significantly linked to reliability, leaving the influence of question characteristics on reliability somewhat ambiguous. Characteristics of respondents were also found to be related to levels of reliability. Older respondents and those with less schooling provided the least reliable attitude reports. These results are discussed within a general framework for the consideration of survey errors and their sources. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68969/2/10.1177_0049124191020001005.pdf
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ABSTRACT: In modern clinical practice, planning access paths to volumetric target structures remains one of the most important and most complex tasks, and a physician's insufficient experience in this can lead to severe complications or even the death of the patient. In this paper, we present a method for safety evaluation and the visualization of access paths to assist physicians during preoperative planning. As a metaphor for our method, we employ a well-known, and thus intuitively perceivable, natural phenomenon that is usually called crepuscular rays. Using this metaphor, we propose several ways to compute the safety of paths from the region of interest to all tumor voxels and show how this information can be visualized in real-time using a multi-volume rendering system. Furthermore, we show how to estimate the extent of connected safe areas to improve common medical 2D multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) views. We evaluate our method by means of expert interviews, an online survey, and a retrospective evaluation of 19 real abdominal radio-frequency ablation (RFA) interventions, with expert decisions serving as a gold standard. The evaluation results show clear evidence that our method can be successfully applied in clinical practice without introducing substantial overhead work for the acting personnel. Finally, we show that our method is not limited to medical applications and that it can also be useful in other fields.IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics. 12/2011; 17(12):2163-72.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: During clinical placements, clinical educators facilitate student learning. Previous research has defined the skills, attitudes and practices that pertain to an ideal clinical educator. However, less attention has been paid to the role of student readiness in terms of foundational knowledge and attitudes at the commencement of practice education. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain clinical educators' views on the characteristics that they perceive demonstrate that a student is well prepared for clinical learning. METHODS: A two round on-line Delphi study was conducted. The first questionnaire was emailed to a total of 636 expert clinical educators from the disciplines of occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech pathology. Expert clinical educators were asked to describe the key characteristics that indicate a student is prepared for a clinical placement and ready to learn. Open-ended responses received from the first round were subject to a thematic analysis and resulted in six themes with 62 characteristics. In the second round, participants were asked to rate each characteristic on a 7 point Likert Scale. RESULTS: A total of 258 (40.56%) responded to the first round of the Delphi survey while 161 clinical educators completed the second (62.40% retention rate). Consensus was reached on 57 characteristics (six themes) using a cut off of greater than 70% positive respondents and an interquartile deviation IQD of equal or less than 1. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified 57 characteristics (six themes) perceived by clinical educators as indicators of a student who is prepared and ready for clinical learning. A list of characteristics relating to behaviours has been compiled and could be provided to students to aid their preparation for clinical learning and to universities to incorporate within curricula. In addition, the list provides a platform for discussions by professional bodies about the role of placement education.BMC Medical Education 11/2012; 12(1):112. · 1.41 Impact Factor