Rescue and repair during photoreceptor cell renewal mediated by docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Neuroscience Center of Excellence, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.
The Journal of Lipid Research (Impact Factor: 4.73). 04/2010; 51(8):2018-31. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.R001131
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Retinal degenerative diseases result in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and photoreceptor cell loss. These cells are continuously exposed to the environment (light) and to potentially pro-oxidative conditions, as the retina's oxygen consumption is very high. There is also a high flux of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PUFA that moves through the blood stream toward photoreceptors and between them and RPE cells. Photoreceptor outer segment shedding and phagocytosis intermittently renews photoreceptor membranes. DHA is converted through 15-lipoxygenase-1 into neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a potent mediator that evokes counteracting cell-protective, anti-inflammatory, pro-survival repair signaling, including the induction of anti-apoptotic proteins and inhibition of pro-apoptotic proteins. Thus, NPD1 triggers activation of signaling pathway/s that modulate/s pro-apoptotic signals, promoting cell survival. This review provides an overview of DHA in photoreceptors and describes the ability of RPE cells to synthesize NPD1 from DHA. It also describes the role of neurotrophins as agonists of NPD1 synthesis and how photoreceptor phagocytosis induces refractoriness to oxidative stress in RPE cells, with concomitant NPD1 synthesis.

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    • "acute inflammatory responses) are programmed to be self-limited and tightly controlled [8] [9] [10]. Lipid mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes play pivotal roles in the initiation of acute inflammation [11], whereas resolvins and protectins promote and stimulate active resolution [8] [9] [12]. In excess, prostaglandins and leukotrienes are generally pro-inflammatory [11] and involved in the classic initiation phase of the acute inflammatory response in humans. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute inflammatory responses are protective, yet without timely resolution can lead to chronic inflammation and organ fibrosis. A systems approach to investigate self-limited (self-resolving) inflammatory exudates in mice and structural elucidation uncovered novel resolution phase mediators in vivo that stimulate endogenous resolution mechanisms in inflammation. Resolving inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes utilize DHA and other n-3 EFA to produce three structurally distinct families of potent di- and trihydroxy-containing products, with several stereospecific potent mediators in each family. Given their potent and stereoselective picogram actions, specific members of these new families of mediators from the DHA metabolome were named D-series resolvins (Resolvin D1 to Resolvin D6), protectins (including protectin D1- neuroprotectin D1), and maresins (MaR1 and MaR2). In this review, we focus on a) biosynthesis of protectins and maresins as anti-inflammatory - pro-resolving mediators; b) their complete stereochemical assignments and actions in vivo in disease models. Each pathway involves the biosynthesis of epoxide-containing intermediates produced from hydroperoxy-containing precursors from human leukocytes and within exudates. Also, aspirin triggers an endogenous DHA metabolome that biosynthesizes potent products in inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes, namely aspirin-triggered Neuroprotectin D1/Protectin D1 [AT-(NPD1/PD1)]. Identification and structural elucidation of these new families of bioactive mediators in resolution has opened the possibility of diverse patho-physiologic actions in several processes including infection, inflammatory pain, tissue regeneration, neuroprotection-neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and others. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 08/2014; 1851(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.08.006 · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    • "These data indicate tight regulation of DHA homeostasis in RPE cells. The DHA-derived compounds, protectin D1, neuroprotectin D1 and resolvin D1, have been identified as anti-inflammatory lipid mediators (Bazan et al., 2010; Mukherjee et al., 2004; Serhan et al., 2004). Therefore, the well-recognized role of CYP4 enzymes in fatty acid metabolism and the suspected abnormal lipid metabolism in BCD raises the possibility that a deficiency in the PUFAhydroxylase catalytic function of CYP4V2 might play a role in BCD (Kelly et al., 2011). "
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    Drug Metabolism Reviews 05/2014; DOI:10.3109/03602532.2014.921190 · 6.29 Impact Factor
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    • "One of the protectins, 10,17-docosatriene, is produced in murine ischemic stroke and is a potent regulator of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration, reducing stroke-mediated tissue damage (Marcheselli et al., 2003; Serhan et al., 2002). Given its potent protective actions in the retina and brain, we initially termed this DHA-derived mediator neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) (Bazan et al., 2010; Mukherjee et al., 2004; Stark and Bazan, 2011a). Recently, we reported discovery of novel aspirin-triggered DHA metabolome, a potent anti-inflammatory proresolving molecule, namely aspirintriggered Neuroprotectin D1 (AT-NPD1, 10R, 17R–dihydroxy-docosa- 4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid) (Serhan et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute ischemic stroke triggers complex neurovascular, neuroinflammatory and synaptic alterations. Aspirin and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 essential fatty acid family member, have beneficial effects on cerebrovascular diseases. DHA is the precursor of neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), which downregulates apoptosis and, in turn, promotes cell survival. Here we have tested the effect of aspirin plus DHA administration and discovered the synthesis of aspirin-triggered NPD1 (AT-NPD1) in the brain. Then we performed the total chemical synthesis of this molecule and tested in the setting of 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurological status was evaluated at 24h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days. At 3h post-stroke onset, an intravenous administration of 333 μg/kg of AT-NPD1 sodium salt (AT-NPD1-SS) or methyl-ester (AT-NPD1-ME) or vehicle (saline) as treatment was given. On day 7, ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brains was conducted on 11.7 T MRI. T2WI, 3D volumes, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated. In addition, infarct volumes and number of GFAP (reactive astrocytes), ED-1 (activated microglia/macrophages) and SMI-71-positive vessels were counted in the cortex and striatum at the level of the central lesion. All animals showed similar values for rectal and cranial temperatures, arterial blood gases, and plasma glucose during and after MCAo. Treatment with both AT-NPD1-SS and AT-NPD1-ME significantly improved neurological scores compared to saline treatment at 24h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 days. Total lesion volumes computed from T2WI images were significantly reduced by both AT-NPD1-SS and AT-NPD1-ME treatment in the cortex (by 44% and 81%), striatum (by 61% and 77%) and total infarct (by 48% and 78%, respectively). Brain edema, computed from T2WI in the cortex (penumbra) and striatum (core), was elevated in the saline group. In contrast, both AT-NPD1 decreased water content in the striatum on day 7. 3D volumes, computed from T2WI, were dramatically reduced with both AT-NPD1 and the lesion was mostly localized in the subcortical areas. Treatment with both AT-NPD1-SS and AT-NPD1-ME significantly reduced cortical (by 76% and 96%), subcortical (by 61% and 70%) and total (69% and 84%, respectively) infarct volumes as defined by histopathology. In conclusion, a novel biosynthetic pathway that leads to the formation of AT-NPD1 mediator in the brain was discovered. In addition, administration of synthetic AT-NPD1, in either its sodium salt or as the methyl ester, was able to attenuate cerebral ischemic injury which leads to a novel approach for pharmaceutical intervention and clinical translation.
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