Transdermal absorption enhancement through rat skin of gallidermin loaded in niosomes.
ABSTRACT Gallidermin (Gdm) loaded in anionic niosomes composed of Tween 61/CHL/DP (1:1:0.05 molar ratio) gave the highest entrapment efficiency (45.06%). This formulation gave antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus with the MIC and MBC of 3.75 and 7.5; 7.5 and 15 microg/microl, respectively. Gdm loaded in niosomes was more chemically stable than Gdm in aqueous solution of about 1.5 times. Gdm loaded and unloaded in niosomes were not found in the receiver solution investigated by vertical Franz diffusion cells at 37 degrees C for 6h. Gdm loaded in niosomes showed higher cumulative amounts in viable epidermis and dermis (VED) of rat skin of about 2 times more than unloaded Gdm. Gdm loaded in niosomes and incorporated in gel exhibited the highest cumulative amounts (82.42+/-9.28 microg cm(-2)) and fluxes (13.74+/-1.55 microg cm(-2)h(-1)) in stratum corneum (SC) and comparative cumulative amounts (183.16+/-30.32 microg cm(-2)) and fluxes (25.74+/-5.05 microg cm(-2)h(-1)) in VED to the unloaded Gdm incorporated in gel. This study has suggested that Gdm loaded in anionic niosomes and incorporated in gel is the superior topical antibacterial formulation because of the high accumulation in the skin with no risk of systemic effect.