Genetic factors are important determinants of impaired growth after infant cardiac surgery.
ABSTRACT We sought to estimate the prevalence and identify the predictors of impaired growth after infant cardiac surgery.
We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective study of the role of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms on neurodevelopment in young children after infant cardiac surgery. Prevalence estimates for growth velocity were derived by using anthropometric measures (weight and head circumference) obtained at birth and at 4 years of age. Genetic evaluation was also performed. Growth measure z scores were calculated by using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Growth velocity was evaluated by using 2 different techniques: first by clustering the children into one of 3 growth velocity subgroups based on z scores (impaired growth, difference < -0.5 standard deviation; stable growth, difference of -0.5 to 0.5 standard deviation; and improving growth, difference > 0.5 SD) and second by using continuous difference scores. Statistical analyses were conducted with a combination of proportional odds models for the ordered categories and simple linear regression for the continuous outcomes.
Three hundred nineteen full-term subjects had complete anthropometric measures for weight and head circumference at birth and 4 years. The cohort was 56% male. Genetic examinations were available for 97% (309/319) of the cohort (normal, 74%; definite or suspected genetic abnormality, 26%). Frequency counts for weight categories were as follows: impaired growth, 37%; stable growth, 31%; and improving growth, 32%. Frequency counts for head circumference categories were as follows: impaired growth, 39%; stable growth, 28%; and improving growth, 33%. The presence of a definite or suspected genetic syndrome (P = .04) was found to be a predictor of impaired growth for weight but not for head circumference. When growth z scores were used as continuous outcomes, the apolipoprotein E epsilon2 allele was found to be predictive of lower z scores for both weight (P = .02) and head circumference (P = .03).
Impaired growth for both weight and head circumference is common (both >30%) in this cohort of children after infant cardiac surgery. Both the apolipoprotein E epsilon2 allele and the presence of a definite or suspected genetic syndrome were associated with impaired weight growth velocity. The apolipoprotein E epsilon2 allele was also associated with impaired growth velocity for head circumference. Persistent poor growth might have long-term implications for the health and development of children with congenital heart defects.
Article: Association of Impaired Linear Growth and Worse Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Infants with Single Ventricle Physiology: A Report from the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To describe neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with single ventricle (SV) physiology and determine factors associated with worse outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Neurodevelopmental outcomes for infants with SV enrolled in a multicenter drug trial were assessed at 14 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with worse outcomes. RESULTS: Neurodevelopmental testing was performed at 14 ± 1 months in 170/185 subjects in the trial. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome was present in 59% and 75% had undergone the Norwood operation. Mean Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) and mental developmental index (MDI) were 80 ± 18 and 96 ± 14, respectively, (normal 100 ± 15, P < .001 for each). Group-based trajectory analysis provided a 2-group model ("high" and "low") for height z-score trajectory and brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP) trajectory. The predicted PDI scores were 15 points higher in the "high" height z-score trajectory compared with the "low" cluster (P < .001). A higher number of serious adverse events during the trial was associated with lower PDI scores (P = .02). The predicted MDI scores were 13-17 points lower in "low height trajectory-high BNP trajectory" group compared with the other 3 groups (P < .001). MDI scores were also lower in subjects who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the neonatal hospitalization (P = .01) or supplemental oxygen at discharge (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Neurodevelopmental outcome at 14 months of age is impaired in infants with SV physiology. Low height trajectory and high BNP trajectory were associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Efforts to improve nutritional status alone may not improve neurodevelopmental outcomes.The Journal of pediatrics 08/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor